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BB0001 Q.1 a. What do you mean by buying motives? Give examples. b. Explain briefly the stages involved in buying process.

a. Meaning of Buying Motives
According to Wit. Stanton: “A motive can be defined as a drive or an urge for which an individual seeks satisfaction. It becomes a buying motive when the individual seeks satisfaction through the purchase of something.” Motive is thus inner urge that moves or prompts a person to some action. Motive is an effectual desire that prompts one to a definite action. A motive is the inner state that energises, activates or motives and that directs or channels behaviour towards goals.

Primary buying motives Secondary buying motives
1. Food and Drink 1. Bargains
2. Comfort 2. Information
3. To attract opposite sex 3. Cleanliness
4. Welfare of beloved ones 4. Efficiency
5. Freedom from fear and danger 5. Convenience
6. To be superior 6. Dependability quality
7. Social approval 7. Style beauty
8. To live longer 8. Economy profit
9. Curiosity.
All these motives are not equally forceful. Here we give only important buying motives:
1. Freedom from fear and danger: Fear is a negative motive but is a very powerful one. The most basic instinct of a human being is self-preservation. A person would do almost anything to guarantee – his safety. Fear is a very powerful and compelling force in human affair.
2. Desire for economy: People desire money to satisfy their other desires. The businessman wants money to make more profits or lower costs. Saving money is a universal desire. Customers spend money to get more money.
3. Vanity: Vanity is a powerful motive in the hands of the marketing man being the safest appeal that may be used.
4. Appreciation: Everybody desires to be appreciated and complimented. They like to be recognized as an important person. They want to be in a position from where they can issue orders to others.
5. Fashion: It is the desire of everyone to imitate what others are doing. This may also be called imitation motive. It is closely linked with pride or desire for importance.
6. Possession: The instincts of possession or a desire to call things as „mine‟ leads persons to hoard and collect things. A miser takes delight in possessing money. Some persons collect postage stamps and old coins. Here the hoarding instinct is at work.
7. Sex or romance: The sex motive is a very powerful one and can sell almost anything. It is no wonder that this instinct is very often used by marketers in women centred advertisements.
8. Love of others: This motive plays an important part when parents purchase all kinds of things for their children like toys, fancy garments and other presents, or go in for life insurance to make provision for their future. Insurance men use this motive to include the prospect to protect his loved ones by purchasing an insurance policy.
9. Health or physical well-being: Young persons are full of energy and are sometimes indifferent to their health or physical well-being till they attain the age of forty. Many persons purchase health foods, vitamin tablets and patent medicines to maintain their health and physical well-being.
10. Comfort and convenience: Most people like to be easy going. They don‟t like to exert much. They simply like to do everything the easy way and in comfort. Hence this motive may be well exploited by the marketers, particularly for selling luxury items.
Using buying motives in marketing
Human behaviour is fundamentally related to instincts. It is these instincts which make a person behave differently at different times. The motivation-research is meant to measure the changes of instincts of people.
The marketer should plan well making full use of these motives. Marketing men are placed in a better position to develop an effective marketing programme to satisfy such motives. The use or low priced cigarettes may supply the desire for saving money while high priced one may suggest approval and quality. The appropriate motive must be crystallized if the marketing programme is to be effective and appropriate in terms of product features and advertising strategy.

b. Stages of Buying Process
The purchaser or consumer takes his buying decision, for some commodities immediately without much consideration such as items of daily use while for some other commodities mainly luxury or durable items, he thinks much before taking a decision to purchase it. Sometimes, he consults others. Generally, the purchaser passes through five distinct stages in taking a decision for purchasing a particular commodity. These stages are: (i) need arousal, (ii) information search, (iii) evaluation behaviour,
(iv) purchase decision, and (v) post purchase feelings.
i) Need arousal: The buying process starts with need arousal. A need can be activated through internal or external stimuli. The basic needs of a common man arise to a level and become a drive and he knows from his previous experience how to satisfy those needs like hunger, thirst, sex, etc. This is a case of internal stimulus. A need can also be aroused by an external stimulus such as sight of a new thing in a shop while purchasing other things.
ii) Information search: After need arousal, the consumer tries to solve it and gathers the sources and information about the product.
There are four consumer information sources.
i) Personal sources (family, friends, neighbours etc.).
ii) Commercial sources (advertisements, salesmen, dealers).
iii) Public sources (mass media, consumer-rating organizations).
iv) Experiential sources (handling, examining, using the product).
iii) Evaluation behaviour: Having collected the information, the consumer clarifies and evaluates the alternatives. There is, unfortunately no simple and single evaluation process used by all consumers or even by one consumer in all buying situations. The most current process of evaluation is to judge the product largely on a conscious and rational basis. Various considerations form the part of judgement such as product attributes, importance, weights, brand image, utility function for each attribute, and attitude etc. After evaluation of various alternatives, he takes the decision to buy.
iv) Purchase decision: Evaluation behaviour leads the consumer to form a ranked set of preferences. Normally a consumer buys the article, he or she likes most but there are three more important considerations for taking the buying decision:
a) attitude of others such as of wife, relatives, and friends, but it depends upon the intensity of their negative and the consumers‟ motivation to comply with the other person‟s wishes;
b) anticipated situation factors as expected family income, expected total cost of the product and the expected benefits of the product;
c) unanticipated situational factors such as looks or manner of the salesman, or the way business is carried on, or worry about his income situation.
The marketer must consider these factors and should try to provoke the feeling of risk in the consumer and attempt to provide information and support that will help him.
v) Post purchase feelings: After buying and trying the product, the consumer will feel some level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction and level of satisfaction depends very much on the expectation and the product‟s perceived performance. If the product matches upto his expectations, the consumer is satisfied; if it exceeds, he is highly satisfied; and if it falls short of expectations, he is dissatisfied. Consumers form their expectations on the basis of message and claims sent out by the seller and other communication sources. If seller makes exaggerated claims, the consumer will naturally feel dissatisfaction. So, the smart seller must make claims about the performance of the product that are congruent with its quality so that the consumer would feel satisfied.


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