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MB0040 - Q1. (a) ‘Statistics is the backbone of decision-making’. Comment

Answer: a. Due to advanced communication network, rapid changes in consumer behaviour, varied expectations of variety of consumers and new market openings, modern managers have a difficult task of making quick and appropriate decisions. Therefore, there is a need for them to depend more upon quantitative techniques like mathematical models, statistics, operations research and econometrics.
Decision making is a key part of our day-to-day life. Even when we wish to purchase a television, we like to
know the price, quality, durability, and maintainability of various brands and models before buying one. As you can see, in this scenario we are collecting data and making an optimum decision. In other words, we are using Statistics.
Again, suppose a company wishes to introduce a new product, it has to collect data on market potential, consumer likings, availability of raw materials, feasibility of producing the product. Hence, data collection is the back-bone of any decision making process.
Many organisations find themselves data-rich but poor in drawing information from it. Therefore, it is important to develop the ability to extract meaningful information from raw data to make better decisions. Statistics play an important role in this aspect.
Statistics is broadly divided into two main categories. Below Figure illustrates the two categories. The two categories of Statistics are descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.


•Descriptive Statistics: Descriptive statistics is used to present the general description of data which is summarised quantitatively. This is mostly useful in clinical research, when communicating the results of experiments.
•Inferential Statistics: Inferential statistics is used to make valid inferences from the data which are helpful in effective decision making for managers or professionals.
Statistical methods such as estimation, prediction and hypothesis testing belong to inferential statistics. The researchers make deductions or conclusions from the collected data samples regarding the characteristics of large population from which the samples are taken. So, we can say ‘Statistics is the backbone of decision-making’.

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