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Q.1 Explain the different types of communication with relevant examples.

Broadly, communication may be divided into two areas – verbal and nonverbal communication.

Verbal communication, or communication through words, provides the opportunity for personal contact and two-way flow of information. A large part of our communication, whether at work or outside, is verbal in nature.

Verbal communication in turn, may be divided into two areas – oral and written communication.
Oral communication may be defined as a process whereby a speaker interacts verbally with one or more listeners, in order to influence the latter’s behavior in some way or the other.

Example – In a business context, a manager doing a performance appraisal with an employee, or a sales manager making a sales plan presentation to his sales team. In the first example, the manager may point out areas for improvement and in the second case, the sales manager may be explaining how to achieve new sales targets.
Oral communication in a business context can take the form of meetings, presentations, one-to-one meetings, performance reviews and so on.

Written communication is a process whereby a writer interacts verbally with a receiver, in order to influence the latter’s behavior.
Example – A manager writing a letter of apology in response to a customer’s complaint regarding poor service. Written communication at the workplace can take several forms such as letters, memos, circulars, notices, reports and email. We will examine some of these in more detail in later chapters.
Non-verbal communication, on the other hand may be defined as communication without words. It refers to any way of conveying meanings
without the use of verbal language. The game of “dumb charades” is a perfect example. Non-verbal communication is generally unintentional, unlike verbal communication. All of us tend to communicate silently and unknowingly send signals and messages by what we do, apart from what we say. Gestures, facial expressions, posture and the way we dress, are all part of non-verbal communication.
Non-verbal communication can have a greater impact than verbal communication, since “how you say something” is sometimes more important than “what you say.” Although non-verbal communication can affect both our personal and business relationships, it is particularly important in the workplace.

Example –Your boss has asked you to make a presentation on your suggestions for improving the organization. You take him at his word and come prepared with an elaborate presentation and a list of ideas. However, as you make your presentation, he yawns repeatedly, sits back casually, looks out of the window, clenches his jaw muscles and begins to frown. At the end of your presentation, he rises abruptly from his chair, says “thank you for your ideas” in an angry voice and gives you a curt handshake.

In the above example, the boss, through his non-verbal behavior, conveys a message beyond the spoken word – which he does not really want to hear your suggestions. Therefore, while the spoken or written words may be perfect, the non-verbal aspects could convey the exact opposite meaning.

1 Verbal Communication
We communicate most of our ideas to others through verbal messages, i.e., through spoken or written messages. However, verbal messages have some drawbacks – the message may not be properly worded, or the message may be misunderstood, or interpreted differently from its intended meaning.
For example, even a simple statement like “let’s discuss this matter tomorrow” might be interpreted by one person as “let’s meet tomorrow” and by another as “let’s discuss this over the phone”.
Miscommunication through verbal messages could be avoided by following a few simple guidelines –
Avoid Words with Multiple Meanings: Words sometimes tend to have different meanings in different cultures. Therefore, when communicating Your boss has asked you to make a presentation on your suggestions for improving the organization. You take him at his word and come prepared with an elaborate presentation and a list of ideas. However, as you make your presentation, he yawns repeatedly, sits back casually, looks out of the window, clenches his jaw muscles and begins to frown. At the end of your presentation, he rises abruptly from his chair, says “thank you for your ideas” in an angry voice and gives you a curt handshake in a cross-cultural context, it is particularly important to avoid literal translation of words, since they might have a negative meaning in another culture.

Example: The advertising campaign for Electrolux vacuum cleaners with the slogan “Nothing sucks like an Electrolux”, was introduced without any changes in the American market. However, the product failed since the word “sucks” which is American slang, has a negative connotation which means “bad.”
Even simple words used in the same cultural context could have multiple meanings and be interpreted differently.

Example: If I ask you “What kind of shape are you in?”, you might understand it to mean what kind of financial position you are in, whereas the intended meaning might have been “What kind of mental or physical shape are you in?”.

Therefore, when communicating verbally, it is important to use words that are precise, unambiguous and have a single accepted meaning.

Ensure Clarity through Highly Specific Statements: Instead of describing an object or idea in general terms or in abstract language, use highly specific language to avoid a variety of interpretations.

Example – If you are calling the IT support staff in your organization to fix a problem with your computer, instead of saying “My computer doesn’t work”, it is better to state in more precise terms that “ I get a message saying that my computer is not responding.”

Avoid overuse of Jargon: Jargon refers to technical terms or specialized vocabulary. Every profession has its own jargon which only experts in that field can understand. For example, IT experts use terms like “computer architecture” which the layperson may not understand. The use of jargon depends on the audience with whom you are communicating. A certain amount of jargon may be permissible when writing a technical report for example, but should be avoided when communicating with a general audience, since the terms may not be understood. Above all, never use jargon just to impress your audience.

Avoid Biased Language and Offensive Words : Language has the power to arouse negative feelings, if it is not used with care. This can happen when the words used seem to be objective, but actually contain an intentional or unintentional bias.
For example, referring to a co-worker as “wishy washy” if he is not quick in making a decision, could lead to misunderstanding and conflict. Similarly, certain words may have a “sexist” connotation and be taken in an offensive way – for example, referring to a lady receptionist as “that female.”

Non-verbal Communication
We have defined non-verbal communication earlier in this unit. Let us now take a look at some of its characteristics, which distinguish it from verbal communication.

* Non-verbal Communication Cannot Be Avoided – While one can avoid verbal communication by refusing to speak or write, it is not possible to do the same with non-verbal communication. That is because non-verbal communication is not always intentional, unlike verbal messages, as pointed out earlier. Sometimes, silence itself may convey a lot of meaning.

Example – A speaker making a presentation may find that the audience is not very interactive. Instead he notices people yawning during his presentation. At the end of the session, when he asks for some feedback, there is total silence.
The message conveyed in the above example is that the audience is bored with the session. The silence indicates that they have not listened to the session and that the feedback is negative.
* Non-verbal Communication is Powerful – Non-verbal communication helps us to form first impressions and make judgments of others. First impressions generally tend to be lasting impressions.
Let us say you go for a job interview fifteen minutes late and dressed in informal attire. When asked some questions, you avoid eye contact. This immediately reflects on your attitude and the impression formed of you is that of a person who takes things casually, is insecure and lacks knowledge.

* Non-verbal Communication is Ambiguous – While precise words can be used in verbal communication to ensure that that the message is clearly understood, non-verbal communication is not always clear and easy to understand.
For example, sitting back in a relaxed posture may be a signal of boredom or fatigue. Similarly, avoiding eye contact with your audience could mean that either you are nervous or guilty of something!
Therefore it is not possible to accurately understand the messages conveyed by non-verbal behavior.

* Non-verbal Communication Cannot Express All Messages – Nonverbal behavior can only express a person’s feelings, attitudes, level of interest, liking or dislike for something. Certain messages about ideas or concepts can only be expressed through the spoken or written word.
Consider the following example-
A sales manager wanting to report that sales for the current year has exceeded targets, can only do so through a written report or oral presentation. If he is making an oral presentation, his non-verbal behavior can only indicate how pleased he is about the increase in sales.

*Non-verbal Communication Varies Across Cultures – While certain types of non-verbal behavior are universal, others may be different in different cultures.

Examples – There are different rules regarding the appropriateness of the handshake in oriental and western cultures. Generally, in oriental cultures like India, any form of physical contact is not common and is interpreted as being intimate, while it is an accepted thing in western countries. Similarly, a nod of the head means yes in some cultures and no in other cultures. In this age of business communication across cultures, it is important for you to understand these differences, especially when doing business overseas. Failure to do this could lead to costly blunders.

Classification of Non-verbal Communication
We have seen how non-verbal communication plays an important role in business communication. Given its importance, an understanding of the different types of non-verbal communication is essential. There is a common misconception that non-verbal communication is synonymous with body language and includes only body language. The fact is that it is a vast area which has been widely researched and includes several aspects. The table below lists the different types of non-verbal communication, with the corresponding communication terminology-

Types of Non-verbal Communication
Communication Terminology
Body Language
Personal Space and Distance
Meaning Attached to Time
Time Language
Tone of Voice
Physical Environment
Physical Context


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