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Q1. What is MIS? Define the characteristics of MIS? What are the basic Functions of MIS? Give some Disadvantage of MIS?

During the period of preindustrial revolution most of the data processing was done manually. It was after the industrial revolution that the computers slowly started replacing manual labor. The modern digital computer was basically designed to handle scientific calculations. During the period 1940 to 1960 computers were commercially used for census and payroll work.
This involved large amount of data and its processing. Since then the commercial application exceeded the scientific applications for which the computer were mainly intended for.
MIS is an Information system which helps in providing the management of an organization with information which is used by management for decision making.
MIS characteristics
· In any organization managers will have varieties of tasks to manage. MIS is mainly designed to take care of the needs of the managers in the organization.
· Organizations will have different departments like marketing, production, sales, inventory, maintenance etc. Each of these departments function individually and also in relationship with other departments. Information is available in abundance. MIS aids in integrating the information generated by various departments of the organization.
· MIS helps in identifying a proper mechanism of storage of data. The data is maintained in such a way that the unnecessary duplication of data is avoided.
· MIS also helps in establishing mechanism to eliminate redundancies in data.
· MIS as a system can be broken down into sub systems. Each such sub system may be programmed. This results in easy access of data, accuracy of data and information. It helps in maintaining the consistency of data.

Function of MIS
The main function of MIS is to help the managers and the executives in the organization in decision making.
· Large quantities of data like customer’s information, competitor’s information, and personnel records, sales data, accounting data etc is collected from internal sources like the company records and external sources like annual reports and publications.
· The collected data is organized in the form of a database.
· The data from the database is processed and analysed by using different tools and techniques.
· The results of the analysis is properly presented to the managers to help them in decision making.

Disadvantages of MIS
1. Highly sensitive requires constant monitoring.
2. Budgeting of MIS extremely difficult.
3. Quality of outputs governed by quality of inputs.
4. Lack of flexibility to update it.
5. Effectiveness decreases due to frequent changes in top management
6.takes into account only qualitative factors and ignores non-qualitative factors like morale of worker, attitude of worker etc.


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