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Q.1 Discuss the approaches to HR Audit

Answer: HR auditing in recent years is not only considered mere instrument of control an but also has become a necessary decision making tool in personnel related matters according to the global objectives of the company. As a result, all of the functions and competencies of HR auditing are being progressively expanded.
Walker [1998] differentiates between two approaches relative to HR auditing i.e. those centered
in the functions internal aspect, and those centered on the external aspect.
Internal perspective: From an internal perspective, as in any staff function, there is a trend of valuing its actions as a result of the activities undertaken and its costs. The way of judging departments capability would be on its ability to supply certain services to the organization at the lowest possible cost. According to this approach, the operational measurements traditionally used are those which refer to quantity, quality and reliability, or cost and speed, therefore placing the focus on activities, costs, or productivity ratios.
External perspective: From an external perspective, if it is understood that the ultimate appraisal of the effectiveness of HR is based on their impact on the companys results, then the measurements.
Should include results obtained outside the function.
There are five common approaches for the purpose of evaluation of HR in any organization:
Comparative approach: In this approach, another division or company that has better practices or results is chosen as the model. The audit team audits and compares the audited firms results with the best practices of the model organization. This approach is commonly used to compare the results of specific activities or programs. The approach is often used with turnover, absence, salary data and staffing levels. It helps detect areas where improvement is needed. It also makes sense to compare where a procedure is being used for the first time.
Outside authority: In this approach, standards set by a consultant or taken from published research findings serve as the benchmark for the audit team. The consultant or research findings may help diagnose the cause of problems.
Statistical: This approach relies on performance measures drawn from the companys existing information system. From existing records, the audit team generates statistical standards against which activities and programs are evaluated. With the mathematical standards as a base, the team may uncover errors while they are still minor. Often this approach is supplemented with comparative data from external sources such as other firms, or industry association surveys. The information is usually expressed in ratios or formulas that are easy to compute and use.
Compliance approach: This approach reviews past practices, to determine if actions taken followed legal requirements and company policies and procedures.
The audit team here often examines a sample of employment, compensation, discipline and employee appraisal forms. The purpose of the review is to ensure that the field offices and the operating managers have complied with internal rules and legal regulations, such as minimum wages and equal employment opportunity laws. By sampling elements of the human resources information system, the audit team looks for deviations from laws and company policies and procedures. The team can then determine the degree of compliance achieved.
Management by Objectives (MBO): In this management by objectives approach, managers and specialists set objectives in their area of responsibility. Then they create specific goals against which this performance can be measured. The audit team researches actual performance and compares it with the previously set objectives. They can then evaluate the trends in this area.


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