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Q.1 Explain the functions of recruiting and staffing in retail management.

Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization. Acquiring and retaining high-quality talent is critical to an organisation’s success. By making use of right recruitment policy, an organisation obtains a sufficient number of qualified people at the right place and time so that the people and the organisation can
select each other in their own best short and long term interests.
Various steps in the audit in recruiting involve

1 Applicant pool generation
Every HR manager keeps on maintaining the record of various CVs that various applicants keep on forwarding to him/her regarding various posts available/unavailable, looks into the current and anticipated resources that can be expended to attract and retain such talent.
Results of an analysis conducted by Mary L. Connerley, Kevin D. Carlson, Ross L. Mecham on 391 applicant pools representing 18 different job families suggest that applicant pool quality can vary substantially within and across job families. Utility estimates, based on the hiring of a single employee and using Grade Point Average (GPA) as a measure of applicant quality, produced differences within applicant pools for hiring a single individual valued as high as $15,000. The average difference between the highest and lowest quality applicant pools across 18 job families was $6,394.45 (SD = $3,533.20).
To ensure that the employer and the employee, both, derive maximum benefit from the recruitment, it becomes imperative for the organisation to follow the stepwise process. As the job market becomes increasingly competitive and the available skills grow more diverse, recruiters need to be more selective in their choices, since poor recruiting decisions can produce long-term negative effects, among them high training and development costs to minimise the incidence of poor performance and high turnover which, in turn, impact staff morale, the production of high quality goods and services and the retention of organisational memory. At worst, the organisation can fail to achieve its objectives thereby losing its competitive edge and its share of the market

2 Employment advertising
Trends in recruitment are changing across the board from hiring practices to rewarding employees for superior behavior. The tables have suddenly turned, forcing employers to sell their company just as hard as a recruit tries to sell his or her employment skills – to a potential new hire. If a company doesn’t stand out and capture the attention of the public, it is more likely to be overlooked by the savvy new recruit.
When design recruitment ads, you should base on advertising principles of AIDA as follows:
Attention – catch the attention of the target audience
Interest – hold the interest until the whole message is read
Desire – Arouse desire for the opportunity offered
Action – Stimulate action in the form of applications
Separating your company from the pack means impressive corporate recruiting efforts, and a creative advertising campaign is key to it. After the successful scanning through the applicant pool, the HR manager advertises for the employment available with the organization. To make the adverts successful, one has to follow the audit steps.

Keyword or keyline: It is a word or phrase typically located in the top of a classified ad. Keywords can be for the industry or occupation, as in: marketing executive or marketing manager. Using accurate keywords is not only helpful, but also important in assuring that the ad doesn’t get overlooked.

Headlines: positioned below the keyword, headlines usually contain an attention-grabbing phrase or specific job title, such as CPA or Human Resource Assistant.

Subhead: to use it is optional but if used is typically featured in bold face font, supports the headline. It will feature key requirements or opportunities related to the position. For example, part-time evenings, or above minimum wage are good subheads.

The Body: It is the main section of the ad, it includes specific information on the position or a brief job description, what skills are required or desirable, background information on the company, specific information relative to the opening (such as overnight or daily traveling), and/or the location of the job. Specific information, such as dates or times an applicant can apply, and to whom, is also included here.

Signature: Signature identifies the company and features the company name and/or logo, address, phone.

Statement: Optional in nature, it can include an EOE statement, or ―NoPhone Calls, Please‖.

3 Employee referral programs
The competition these days has become quite identifying and attracting outstanding employees and the employers used to undermine their top recruiting source, i.e. their own employees. While many companies have some form of employee referral program (ERP) in their recruitment repertoires, the effectiveness of these initiatives varies dramatically. Using employee referrals as part of a recruitment and hiring process offers employers several distinct benefits.

Cost effectiveness: According to a recent survey conducted by the Society for Human Resources Management, the cost to the company of an employee referral averages approximately $1000 for an exempt employee and $500 for a non-exempt hire.

High quality candidates: Employees naturally know their company’s culture, and are likely to present candidates that they believe will ―fit in.

Improved morale: Employees understand that their opinion is valued, and appreciate the opportunity to contribute to the success of the company.

Speed of hire: Employees begin the process of ―selling‖ the company to the candidate even before the interview, and candidates referred are generally ready to make a move. As a result, the company spends less time selling itself and the position, and has more time available to handle other pressing issues.

Other methods of internal recruitment include intranets, staff notice boards, in-house magazines/newsletters, internal notices, meetings etc.

4 Applicant screening
Employee candidate selection must be accomplished in the most efficient manner. For an organization that is on the enterprise level, it becomes even more important to manage the applicant screening process to ensure that drug tests and background checks are accomplished competently and in a time sensitive manner. Screening processes involve a number of tests to evaluate not only the psychological state of a candidate but also the mental and behavioral faculties.
Applicant screening covers background checks. Both these processes have one common denominator and that is employer security. Through meticulous enquiries, employers have the benefit of reducing employee turnover rates and increase employee productivity. It is interesting to note that employers can also reduce mounting training expenditures through careful applicant screening.

5 Testing
Psychologists relay results contributing to the entire qualification outcome of a candidate although these tests are most often based on personality. Tests range from general reasoning to personality and even include technical battery tests. These tests can be categorized into non-management and management assessments.
Application testing deals with tests for the entire application. This is driven by the scenarios from the analysis team. Application limits and features are tested here.
Everyone who applies for the job in the enterprise would not have the required experience or qualifications so they must be eliminated from list called for the next level, in most cases, the interview. But those applications that are considered should be informed about the reasons.
Tests and preliminary tests play a vital role in interviewing process. The candidates who are not suited for this job should be eliminated to help in minimizing the time spent on interviewing.
Tests can be of many types like achievement tests, dexterity tests, intelligence test, personality or attitude tests, movement tests and interest tests.

Proficiency test
Proficiency test seeks to measure the skills and abilities, which the candidate already possesses at the time of testing. These tests determine the claims made by the candidate about his skilled and abilities proved by actual test performances.

Achievement tests aims to measure the knowledge and proficiency the candidate already posses in his field.

Dexterity tests examine how quickly and efficiently the candidate can learn about the nature of his job.

Aptitude tests
It measures the skills and abilities of the candidate that may develop later. These tests assess the potential of the candidate. The main aim is to find out the capacity and capability of the candidates.

Intelligence test usually contains a long list of questions to be answered and problems to be solved within certain period of time. The number questions answered correctly within a specified period of time determines the intelligent quotient of the candidate.

Personality or attitude tests project non-intellectual characteristics of the candidate. It brings out strong characteristic possessed by the candidate such as courage, cowardice, and initiative.

Movement tests seek to measure the speed and accuracy of the candidate.

Interest tests measure the candidate’s interest in a particular kind of work.
A good test should always ensure
• Consistency
• Assessment of the candidate in all aspects
• Suitability
• Standardization
• Establishment of standards.

6 Employment interviewing techniques and processes
Interview is one of the major aspects of hiring a technically qualified person for a particular job in the business enterprise. It is a selection tool of major importance for nearly all jobs. In many organizations, interview is the only tool used in selecting the candidates, which is necessary in filling skilled and technical candidates.
Interviews help the enterprise in selecting candidates having the right temperament, exposure to working environments. Hence interviews play a vital role in finding a suitable person for the job in the enterprise. All the positive and negative qualities of the candidate should be analyzed. The time consumed for this process might be more, but the end result will be a profitable one for the enterprise since the enterprise would have found ―Right person for the right job.

Different types of interviews
Telephonic Interview: Telephonic interviews give the company a chance to get a feel for your skill-set, interests, desired compensation etc., and see if there is a match between their needs and your strengths. If there is enough common ground, then the phone interviews are almost always followed-up by an in-person interview.

Phone interviews are generally conducted in two steps.
• The first step is with a recruiter in Human Resources.
• The second step is a technical interview, usually with one of the people you would be working with.
Technical phone interviews are usually only conducted for people living outside the geographical region. This is done because the company wants to have some level of confidence in your technical abilities before they decided to spend the money to fly you in for an in-person interview.

1. Direct interview: It is brief but straightforward, face-to-face question answer session between the interviewer and the interviewee. No in depth analysis of the candidate ability skills is done. Characteristics or attitudes can be possible find out in such interviews. But if carefully planned, some of these limitations can be avoided.

2. Indirect interview: In this type of interview, no direct questions are asked to the candidate, he is encouraged to express his views about any topics. And how he rates the enterprise and the job applied for him. The interviewer in such cases will be a patient listener either disrupting the thoughts of the candidate.

3. Patterned interview: In this type of interview, a set of standard questions will be framed in advance. Ideal answer will also be framed before itself. Then the answers given by the candidate will be analyzed with the prepared pattern.

4. Stress interview: In this interview, the candidate is analyzed how he reacts to the situation under considerable stress and strain. The candidate should not get irritated or get angry; he should be cool and confident in his answers.

5. Board or Panel interview: In such an interview, there will be many interviewers each would be focusing on certain areas. The candidate is selected or rejected by the combined performance rating of the interviewer.

6. Group interview: In this type of interview, many candidates are interviewed at the same time. A situation will be given to them and all the candidates are asked to participate in the discussions.

Process for an interview
• Interview should be effectively planned and executed properly.
• Getting information about his background.
• Formulating a question plan.
• Candidate should be made comfortable during the interview.
• Drawing the best from candidates.
• Concluding the interview
7 Stress testing
Stress testing deals with the quality of the application in the environment. The idea is to create an environment more demanding of the application than the application would experience under normal work loads. This is the hardest and the most complex category of testing to accomplish and it requires a joint effort from all teams.
A test environment is established with many testing stations. At each station, a script is exercising the system. These scripts are usually based on the regression suite. Race conditions and memory leaks are often found under stress testing. A race condition is a conflict between at least two tests.
A memory leak happens when a test leaves allocated memory behind and does not correctly return the memory to the memory allocation scheme.

Staffing is a term that refers to the management of employee schedules. It can be described as the process of acquiring, deploying, and retaining a workforce of sufficient quantity and quality to create positive impacts on the organization's effectiveness.

The ideal staffing level for an organization depends on the amount of work to be done and the skills required for doing it. If the number and quality of staff employed are greater than necessary for the workload, an organization may be deemed to be overstaffed or if the number of staff is insufficient for the workload, an organization is deemed to be understaffed.
Effective human resource planning will determine the appropriate staffing level for an organization at any given point in time. Staffing includes various aspects to ensure the best practices in an organisation.

Workforce planning: Workforce planning is one of the most important activities in a business. It starts with analysis of the strategic position of the business. The results of this analysis then feed into a forecast of the required demand for labour by the business and how this is likely to be supplied. The final stage involves the creation and implementation of a human resources plan which aims to deliver the right number of the right people for the business.

Specifying Jobs and Roles: Clearly defining employee roles in your company is vital to work efficiency. When employees understand what their role is in your company they will be more productive. Employees should also know what is expected of them and the work they produce. Employees that do not know what is expected of them or their role in your company can lead to unnecessary conflict and misunderstandings.
Here are some tips to help you to clearly define employee roles:
• Clearly tell people what is expected of them.
• Balance the work load.
• Update your employee's progress continuously.
• Weekly progress reports should be implemented.
• Encourage employees to openly communicate with you and other employees.
• Share information about the company with your employees.
• Along with knowing what an employee's role is in the company, they should also be trained and educated for this role.
If your company continues to grow and develop you may realize that there is a need for a new job role. When employees continue to report being shorthanded and mention that some tasks are not being done this could mean it is time to plan a new job role.
Management should draft a job description which states the general responsibilities of the position, along with some specific job duties to be conducted by the role.
• Get feedback from other managers and supervisors about the new job role, the job description and the responsibilities that the new employee will have.
• Make changes if necessary to maintain a balanced work load.
• Finalize the job description. It is important the job description is accurate because it is what you have based the new employee's salary, required training and skills on.
• Remember to help your company grow and advance it is vital that all employees know what their roles are in your company.
Recruiting: It involves the process of identifying and hiring best-qualified candidate (from within or outside of an organization) for a job vacancy, in a most timely and cost effective manner.
Outsourcing: Employee Outsourcing can be a cost effective alternative to the expense and administrative burden of a traditional employer-employee relationship. Outsourcing your human resource functions allows you to focus on business development and provides administrative relief from many employment responsibilities such as payroll preparation, income tax reporting, employee benefits and workers compensation.
Outsourcing is accomplished by transferring many of your employer responsibilities to a Professional Employment Organization (PEO). A PEO is not simply a temp firm, staffing agency, payroll service or placement agency. The PEO acts as your off-site human resource department. Your company enters into an agreement with the PEO to establish a three-way relationship between you, your employees and the PEO. You and the PEO become co-employers instead of the traditional employment relationship.

The other staffing processes involve
• Screening Applicants
• Selecting (Hiring) New Employees
• Succession Planning
• Job and Task Analysis
• Job Description
• Specifying Competencies
• New Employee Orientation
• Training and Development
• Retaining Employees
• Outplacing and Downsizing (laying off employees)
• Exit Interviews


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