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Q1. Write a brief note on the concept of Total Quality Management. Differentiate between Quality Control and Quality Assurance.


Answer:
Quality Control: Quality Control activities include inspection and testing of the products or services after they are produced and just before their delivery to the customers. The inspection and testing activities are carried out to check conformity of the product with specifications / requirements. If any of the products are not in conformance with the specifications, they are quarantined / segregated and the actions as specified (repair, re grade, scrap) are initiated.


Quality Assurance: Quality Assurance refers to planned and systematic production processes that provide confidence in a product's suitability for its intended purpose. It is a set of activities intended to ensure that products (goods and/or services) satisfy customer requirements in a systematic, reliable fashion.
Quality assurance covers all activities from design, development, production, installation, servicing and other associated activities. This introduces the rule ” Right first time”. PDCA (Plan- Do- Check –Act) approach is the most widely used concept in Quality Assurance.
Quality Assurance is about improving and stabilizing the production and associated processes to eliminate or limit the defects from occurring, while the Quality Control is about inspection and testing and preventing the defects from getting delivered to the customers. However, QA does not necessarily eliminate the requirement for Quality control in terms of inspection and testing.

Concept of Total Quality management
Total Quality management is concerned with moving the focus of control outside the individual to within, the objective being to make everyone accountable for their own performance, and to get them committed to attaining quality in a highly motivated fashion. The assumptions a director or a manager must make in order to move in this direction are simply that people do not need to be coerced to perform well, and that people want to achieve, accomplish, influence activity and challenge their abilities, If there is belief in this, the TQM effort will be successful.
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Pillars of Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management is user driven- it cannot be imposed from outside the organization, as perhaps can a quality management standard or statistical process control. This means that the ideas for improvement must come from those with knowledge and experience of the processes, activities and tasks; this has massive implications for training and follow up. TQM is not a cost cutting or productivity improvement device in the traditional sense and it must not be used as such. Although the effects of a successful programme will certainly reduce costs and improve productivity, TQM is concerned chiefly with changing attitudes and skills so that culture of the organization becomes one of preventing failure- doing the right things, right first time, every time.

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