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Q1. Explain Logical Process Modeling and Physical Process Modeling. What are the ingredients of Business Process? Q1. Explain Logical Process Modeling and Physical Process Modeling. What are the ingredients of Business Process?

Logical Process Modeling is the representation of putting together all the activities of business process in detail and making a representation of them. The initial data collected need to be arranged in a logical manner so that links are made between nodes for making the workflow smooth. The steps are as under:

(a) Capturing relevant data in detail to be acted upon;

(b) Establishing controls and limiting access to the data during process execution;

(c) Determining as which task in the process to be done and subsequent tasks in that process;

(d) Making sure that all relevant data are available for all the tasks that need to be in the order determined;

(e) Making available the relevant and appropriate data for that task;

(f) Establishing a mechanism to indicate acceptance of the results after every task or process to have the assurance that flow is going ahead with accomplishments in the desired path.
Some of the activities may occur in sequential order whereas some of them may run parallel. There may be circular paths, like rework loops. Complexities arise out of the manner in which process activities are connected together. Logical Process Model consists only of the business activities and shows the connectivity among them. The process model is a representation of the business activities different from the technology dependent ones. Thus we have a model that is singularly structured only for business activities. Since computer programs are also present in the total system, to allow the business oriented executives to be in control of the inputs, processes and outputs, this unique model is helpful. Logical Process Model – improves control on the access to data and identifies who is in possession of data at different nodes in the dataflow network that has been structured. A few of the logical modeling formats are given below –

a) Process Descriptions with task sequences and data addresses
b) Flow Charts with various activities and relationships
c) Flow Diagrams
d) Function hierarchies
e) Function dependency diagrams.
Every business activity when considered as a logical process model and represented by a diagram. It can be decomposed and meaningful names given to the details. Verb and Noun combinations can be used to describe at each level. Nouns give the name of the activity uniquely and used for the entire model meaning the same activity.

Physical Modeling Physical modeling is concerned with the actual design of data base meeting the requirements of the business. Physical modeling deals with the conversion of the logical model described above into a relational model. Objects get defined at the schema level.
The objects here are tables created on the basis of entities and attributes. Here the database is defined for the business. All the information is put together to make the database software specific. This means that the objects during physical modeling vary on the database software being used. The outcomes are server model diagrams showing tables and relationships with a database.

The ingredients The ingredients that go into a business process can be briefly outline as under:

(i) The data that are needed to accomplish the desired business objective;

(ii) Acquisition, storage, distribution, and control of data across tasks in the process;

(iii) Persons, teams and organizational units that perform and responsible for tasks;

(iv) Decisions that modify and enhance the value of data during the process;
We have some behavioral aspects of the business process mainly the decision making process
Where humans are involved, Decision failures are common and research has shown that it is because of biases in perception and fallacies in reasoning. Another reason is a tendency to act on assumptions even when data are available easily for verification and/or confirmation. Selective recall a means tendency to bring out of memory the facts that reinforce our assumptions and biased evaluation and tendency to accept evidence or fact as absolute which support our hypotheses. These factors result in faulty decision making and being aware and avoiding them consciously improves the processes.


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