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Q.1 a. What are the limitations of MIS? b. Explain the different types of decisions c. Draw a network diagram for a hospital database. Consider your own set of processes for the hospital.

Limitations of MIS
(1) MIS cannot replace managerial judgments in decision making. It is merely an effective tool for the managers in decision making and problem solving.
(2) The quality of output of MIS is directly proportional to the quality of input and processes.
(3) MIS cannot provide tailor made information packages. It is required to analyse the available information before decision making.

(4) In a fast changing and complex environment, MIS may not have enough flexibility to update itself quickly.
(5) MIS takes only quantitative factors into account.
(6) MIS is less useful for making non programmed decisions.
(7) MIS is less effective in organisations where information is not being shared with others.
(8) MIS is less effective due to frequent changes in top management, organisational structure and operational staff.
b. Explain the different types of decisions .
Types of Decisions
The types of decisions are based on the degree of knowledge about the outcomes or the events yet to take place. If the manager has full and precise knowledge of the event or outcome which is to occur, then the decision-making is not a problem. If the manager has full knowledge, then it is a situation of certainty. If he has partial knowledge or a probabilistic knowledge, then it is decision-making under risk. If the manager does not have any knowledge whatsoever, then it is decision-making under uncertainty.
A good MIS tries to convert a decision-making situation under uncertainty to the situation under risk and further to certainty. Decision-making in the Operations Management is a situation of cer­tainty. This is mainly because the manager in this field has fairly good knowledge about the events which are to take place, has full knowledge of environment, and has pre-determined decision alternatives for choice or for selection.
Decision-making at the middle management level is of the risk type. This is because of the difficulty in forecasting an event with hundred per cent accuracy and the limited scope of generating the decision alternatives.
At the top management level, it is a situation of total uncertainty on account of insufficient knowledge of the external environment and the difficulty in forecasting business growth on a long-term basis.
A good MIS design gives adequate support to all the three levels of management.
Let us take the hospital environment to understand the relation types. The patient, bed, hospital room and surgeon are the entities in the environment and their relations are as shown below:
At a given point of time, a patient occupies a bed or a bed is assigned to a patient. Since the patient cannot occupy more than one bed, the relationship is one to one.
At a given point of time, one or more patients are assigned to a hospital room; hence the relationship between the hospital room and the patients is one to many.
A surgeon operates on many patients or a patient may have been operated upon by many surgeons. Hence, the relationships both ways are many to many.
The relationships are built on the assumption that the patient, hospital room, surgeon and hospital bed have unique key as the identifiers.


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