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Q3. Explain different types of Quantitative models. Differentiate between work study and motion study.


Answer:
The different models are as under:
1. Linear Programming: This technique is often used for optimizing a given objective like profit or revenue maximization or cost or outgo minimization. When there are limited resources and they have to meet competing demands, distribution of the resources is the critical issue.


2. Transportation Model: This is concerned goods with from manufacturing centers or warehouses which have to be supplied to depots or retail outlets. The demand and supply position of the places where they are required or produced and the cost of transportation is considered in the model. To economize we use this model.

3. Assignment Model: Allocating jobs or persons to machines, awarding different projects to contractors, so that maximum returns occur or less expenses are incurred calls for the use of this model.

4. Inventory Control Model: Inventory models consider the frequency of placing orders, the quantities per order considering the cost of placing an order, the number of pieces that are to be kept in reserve, the rate of consumption, the lead time required for the supplier, costs involved in storage. Depending upon the probabilities of patterns of consumption and supply, we have different models which give solutions to optimize.
5. Waiting Line Models Queues are formed when the rate of service is at variance with the rate of arrival. They are formed when rate of production is less at particular points compared to the previous ones. Some times we see multiple service points and a single queue are formed for feeding them. Number of items – including people, to be serviced. the rate of service and the type of queue discipline that is intended to be followed, policy of priority, tolerable amounts of waiting etc. are studied with some special techniques.

6. Simulation Models: These models are used when we will not be able to formulate mathematical models. So, we develop a model which resembles a real life situation. And based on the pattern, we predict and plan our procurement, production, delivery etc.

7. PERT and CPM Models : When projects are undertaken with a number of activities some happening in sequence, with gaps of weeks or months and some happening simultaneously and resources are of great variety needing a lot of coordination, it is important to estimate the time required for completion. It is also equally important to identify the bottlenecks and smoothen resources so that time schedules are maintained. Delayed completion may entail penalties. In this model we adopt special methods to make the system efficient.
Work Study When analysis of work methods is conducted during the period when a job is done on a machine or equipment, we say that work study is being conducted.

The study helps in designing the optimum work method and standardization of the work method. This study enables the methods engineer to search for better methods, higher utilization of man and machine and accomplishment of higher productivity. The study gives an opportunity to the workmen to learn the process of study and will be able to offer suggestions for improved methods. This encourages workmen participation and they can be permitted to make changes and report the advantages that can be derived from those. This course is in alignment with the principle of continuous improvement and helps the organisation in the long run. Reward systems may be implemented for recognizing contributions from the workmen. Work study comprises of Work Measurement and Method study. Work measurement focuses on the time element of work, while Method study focuses on the methods deployed and development of better methods.

Motion study: Measurement of time required for any task is arrived at by Motion Study and Work Measurement methods.

Standards are set taking into consideration the differences in performance by different workers and allowances for accommodating relaxation needs of human beings. Periods during change over of jobs, taking trials, inspecting and adjusting the tools are all factors that should be considered.

Work practices are ways of doing any work which has been in vogue and found to be useful. These are determined by motion and time study conducted over years and found to be efficient and practiced. Any method improvement that is conducted may change the practice but only after trials have shown that they increase the comfort of the worker and get the job done faster.


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