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mba assignment smu 2012 3rd sem Q1. What are the steps involved in manpower planning?


Answer:
Steps in Manpower Planning
Manpower planning requires that an estimate of the present and future needs of the organization should be compared with the available manpower and future predicted manpower. Appropriate steps are then taken to bring demand and supply into balance. The outcome of this planning is a well ‘thought out’ and logical manpower demand plan for varying dates in the future which can then be compared with the crude manpower supply schedules. The comparisons will then indicate what steps should be taken to achieve a balance. The 5 steps in the manpower planning process are:

·         Evaluate present manpower inventory
·         Manpower forecasting
·         Develop a manpower sourcing plan or retrenchment plan
·         Manpower allocation
·         Building requisite competencies

1.    Evaluate Present Manpower Inventory
It is very important to evaluate the present manpower status before making a forecast for future manpower planning. To evaluate the present manpower status a department by department analysis and a job-role by job-role analysis is conducted to arrive at the required manpower versus the available manpower. This is accumulated across the organization at different levels and departments. The final report will consolidate and state the required manpower versus the available manpower in terms of the quantitative analysis. Another analysis on the qualitative side conducted similarly shows the competencies required versus competencies available for each of the job roles. This provides the present manpower inventory. There may be excess or deficit or in extremely few cases just the right number quantitatively. The report on the qualitative front may rarely have a 100% match between required competencies versus available competencies.

2. Manpower Forecasting
Manpower planning is done based on the manpower forecasts. The common manpower forecasting techniques are:
(i) Expert Forecasts: This includes formal expert surveys, informal decisions and the Delphi technique.
(ii) Trend Analysis: Manpower needs can be seen through the past practice of the firm or organization keeping the principle year as a basis and a central tendency of measure
(iii) Work Load Evaluation: This depends on the nature of the work load in a branch, department, or a division in a firm or organization.
(iv) Work Force Evaluation: As production and the time duration are to be kept in mind, allotments have to be made for getting the total manpower requirements.
(v) Other Methods: A few mathematical models with the help of computers are also used to forecast manpower needs.

3. Develop a Manpower Sourcing Plan or Retrenchment Plan
Once the current inventory is compared with the future manpower forecasts then the manpower sourcing or retrenchment plan is drawn.
The sourcing plan includes recruitment, selection, placement, hiring temporary staff and outsourcing. You will learn more about the sourcing plan in unit 6.
The retrenchment plan involves sending show-cause notices to bottom performers called bottom scraping, asking people to leave the organization by providing the requisite severance allowance, allowing employees to go on a sabbatical and finally out-placing employees in other organizations to reduce the manpower. It is harder to retrench manpower. The need for retrenchment could also be minimized by very objectively approving any additional manpower.

4. Manpower Allocation & Retention
Manpower allocation helps in managing the impact of deficits and excess in manpower supply through promotions, transfers and job-rotations. Enhancing manpower utilization requires managing the dynamics of leadership and motivation.
Manpower retention would mean taking necessary steps to ensure that the organization provides a conducive-atmosphere to the employees to perform and keeps each employee engaged.

5. Building Requisite Competencies
Once the future manpower forecasts are compared to the current inventory, there may be some gaps in competencies amongst the available internal resources for them to qualify for the future manpower forecasts. In such cases organizations may choose to develop resources through training programs. A training calendar is designed to ensure competencies of existing staff are enhanced to meet the future manpower forecasts. Additional training programs may be designed when organizations are diversifying or expanding. Training programs may be designed to train existing resources on the latest improvements and advancements in technology or the related business subject. Training is provided to improve the knowledge, skill and capability of the employee.

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