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mba solved assignments 2012 Q1. How hardware & software support in various MIS activities of the organization? Explain the transaction stages from manual system to automated systems?


Answer:
Hardware and software support for MIS : Generally hardware in the form of personal computers and peripherals like printers, fax machines, copier, scanners etc are used in organization to support various MIS activities of the organization.

Advantages of a PC: you can find the following advantages a personal computer offers:
a) Speed – A PC can process data at a very high speed. It can process millions of instructions within fraction of seconds.
b) Storage – A PC can store large quantity of data in a small space. It eliminates the need of storing the conventional office flat files and box files which requires lots of space. The storage system in a PC is such that the information can be transferred from one place to another place in electronic form.
c) Communication – A PC on the network can offer great support as a communicator in communicating information in the form of text and images. Today a PC with internet is used as a powerful tool of communication for every business activity.
d) Accuracy – A PC is highly reliable in the sense that it could be used to perform calculations continuously for hours with a great degree of accuracy. It is possible to obtain mathematical results correct up to a great degree of accuracy.
e) Conferencing – A PC with internet offers facility of video conferencing worldwide. Business people across the globe travel a lot to meet their business partner, colleagues, and customers etc to discuss about business activities. By video conferencing inconvenience of traveling can be avoided.
A block diagram of a computer may be represented as-
Block diagram of a Computer
Input unit is used to give input to the processor. Examples of input unit –Keyboard, scanner, mouse, bar code reader etc.

A processor refers to unit which processes the input received the way it has been instructed. In a computer the processor is the CPU – Central Processing Unit. It does all mathematical calculations, logical tasks, storing details in the memory etc.
Output unit is used to give output s from the computer.
Examples of output unit – Monitor, printer, speakers etc.
Software packages like Microsoft Office suite to many customized applications are used in MIS activities of an organization. Various ERP packages are also available t support MIS activities.

Transformation stage – Manual systems to automated systems
The value of Information is not present day discovery. We have always observed that the Information is the asset of any organization. The existence of information is since the ‘Big bang’ happened and then on it went on. But the value of information is being used only after the industrial revolution. Before, it was only in the record which we are using now in an efficient way. The first information was binary. Information is generated by interactions; information is by interaction, as without comparison, without a context, without interaction, there is nothing.
Traditional information systems are said to contain data, which is then processed. The processed data is called information. The processing of data takes place by selecting the required fact and organizing it in a way to form meaningful information which is used for some organizational needs.
In Manual systems, a series of action takes which may be similar as well as different to processing in traditional systems. For instance, in hospital information systems the patient details can be viewed by the administrator as well as patient. But the views perceived by these are different. One may view it as a record to take print and other may be the source of his ailment description. What is common to the two systems is the idea of transformation. Transformation occurs when systems participants are faced with cues from their environment, which may be data or situations, and the participants then define and redefine what to do next, either processing data or developing a situation, altering the system each time to transform it to a state closer to the participants’ goal or objective. When a fact from either type of system is presented for manipulation, a transformation can occur. Thus, transformation is common to both types of systems.
A transformation had to necessarily go through the following stages –
a) appraisal of the procedures b) types of documents c) storage systems d) formulations and coding e) verification and validation f) review g) documentation
After the industrial revolution slowly manual systems were transformed into digital form by means of computer and related instruments.


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