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Q.1 Describe the five process groups and 9 knowledge areas of project management.


Answer:
The five process groups are :

  • Initiation: Processes in this group launch a project or project phase. The key activities in this group include, but are not limited to, creating a feasibility study. Identifying a business needs, creating project charter, product description and selecting project manager.


  • Planning: The process in this group collect information from various constituent processes unto the degree of completion and confidence. Project managers should include stakeholders in the planning process group. Project management plan integrates scope, cost, schedule, risk etc. to produce a realistic plan which is acceptable to the stakeholders.
  • Execution: Process groups consist of processes to complete the work in each of the phases. These processes help the project manager coordinate and direct project resources to meet the objectives of the project plan. The key activities in this group are acquire project team, perform quality assurance, develop project team, vendor solicitation and selection, distributing project information and direct and manage project execution.
  • Monitoring and Controlling: Processes in this process group ensure that the project goes according to plan. Activities in this process group are actions to be implemented when project is not going as per plans. In this process group variances from the project baseline are identified and necessary corrective measures are undertaken. Key activities in this process group are ensuring quality control, providing scope verification, implementation change control, and configuration management, controlling key parameters like cost, schedule and scope and monitoring risk response.
  • Closing: This process group included all processes to close all activities in a project or project phase. The activities in this process group are to be performed even for the projects which have been terminated in the middle or aborted projects. Key activities which are a part of this process group include, but are not limited to auditing procurement documents, scope verification, closing procurements, document lessons learned, submitting final reports, and archiving project records

The nine knowledge areas are:
  • Project Integration Management: The processes in this knowledge area amalgamate all the forty two processes of project management. Integration includes characteristics of confederacy, consolidation, enunciation and integrative events that are important for project management. The processes in this knowledge area are used for balancing processes in all the other knowledge areas. The major activities in this knowledge area include but are not limited to creating the project management plan, monitoring the plan, performing change control and closing the project.

  • Project Scope Management: is required to define the work required in a project. The processes in this knowledge area define the boundary of the project, control and manage change in scope, verify that the work required is completed and manage customer and stakeholder’s satisfaction.
  • Project Time Management: relates to the processes which need to be accomplished to complete the project within the defined schedule. Effective time management helps saving project cost and quality. In the processes in this knowledge area project schedules are drawn up, without relation to the estimates for size, cost and development resources.
  • Project Cost Management: Cost estimation is difficult since there are many factors that influence the cost of a project and not on all of them are under the project’s direct control. The processes in this knowledge area handle project cost that goes into planning, executing, monitoring and closing a project.
  • Project Quality Management: PMI defines quality as the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfil requirements. Quality of the product impacts customer satisfaction and interns impact business growth and also team morale. Project quality management deals with quality processes, roles and responsibilities and quality goals of the organization.
  • Project Human Resource Management: One of the most important tasks in project management is resource management and the most tedious managed resource, which impacts all other project parameters, is human resource. The processes in this knowledge area help project manager in planning for team acquisition to team reliving.
  • Project Communication Management: Communication is essentially the interpersonal process of sending and receiving messages. It is believed that about 85-90% of a project manager’s profile requires communication. Miscommunication or absence of communication can impact a projects performance. The processes in this knowledge area helps project manager to identify what to communicate, whom to communicate, how to communicate and when to communicate.

  • Project Risk Management: Project risk is an uncertain event that can have a negative or positive impact on the project. An appropriate contingency or mitigation plan is required to face risks. The processes in this knowledge area help identify risks, plan for them, and monitor them.
  • Project procurement management: Frequently project teams or sub-products need to be outsourced. The decision to outsource or create a product in-house is made in the procurement management processes. Procurement is a set of processes to evaluate, purchase, and administer an agreement with vendors for such products/goods, service or result, as required by the project but not available within the project organization. Planning process group collects information from various constituent processes upto the degree of completion and confidence. As per PMI, there are 21 processes in the planning process group, which is half of the total project management processes. This very fact, emphasis on the importance of planning process in project management. These twenty one processes are spread across nine knowledge areas. 

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