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solve assignments for Q.2 What are the remedies for breach of contract.

When someone breaches a contract, the other party is no longer obligated to keep its end of the bargain. From there, that party may proceed in several ways:

 (i) The other party may urge the breaching party to reconsider the breach;
(ii) If it is a contract with a merchant, the other party may get help from consumers’ associations;
(iii) The other party may bring the breaching party to an agency for alternative dispute resolution;
(iv) The other party may sue for damages; or
(v) The other party may sue for other remedies.

Rescission of the contract: When a breach of contract is committed by one party, the other party may treat the contract as rescinded. In such a case the aggrieved party is freed from all his obligations under the contract.

Damages: Another relief or remedy available to the promisee in the event of a breach of promise by the promisor is to claim damages or loss arising to him there from. Damages under Sec.75 are awarded according to certain rules as laid down in Secs.73-74. Sec.73 contains three important rules: (i) Compensation as general damages will be awarded only for those losses that directly and naturally result from the breach of the contract. (ii) Compensation for losses indirectly caused by breach may be paid as special damages if the party in breach had knowledge that such losses would also follow from such act of breach. (iii) The aggrieved party is required to take reasonable steps to keep his losses to the minimum.

The most common remedy for breach of contracts: The usual remedy for breach of contracts is suit for damages. The main kind of damages awarded in a contract suit are ordinary damages. This is the amount of money it would take to put the aggrieved party in as good a position as if there had not been a breach of contract. The idea is to compensate the aggrieved party for the loss he has suffered as a result of the breach of the contract.

In addition to the rights of a seller against goods provided in Secs.47 to 54, the seller has the following remedies against the buyer personally. (i) suit for price (Sec.55); (ii) damages for non-acceptance of goods (Sec.56); (iii) suit for interest (Sec.56).

Suit for price

Where under a contract of sale the property in the goods has passed to the buyer and the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay the price, the seller can sue the buyer for the price of the goods. Where the property in goods has not passed to the buyer, as a rule, the seller cannot file a suit for the price; his only remedy is to claim damages.

Suit for damages for non-acceptance

Where the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to accept and pay for the goods, the seller may sue him for damages for non-acceptance. Where the property in the goods has not passed to the buyer and the price was not payable without passing of property, the seller can only sue for damages and not for the price. The amount of damages is to be determined in accordance with the provisions laid down in Sec.73 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872. Thus, where there is an available market for the goods prima facie, the difference between the market price and the contract price can be recovered.

Suit for interest

When under a contract of sale, the seller tenders the goods to the buyer and the buyer wrongfully refuses or neglects to accept and pay the price, the seller has a further right to claim interest on the amount of the price. In the absence of a contract to the contrary, the court may award interest at such rate as it thinks fit on the amount of the price. The interest may be calculated from the date of the tender of the goods or from the date on which the price was payable. It is obvious that the unpaid seller can claim interest only when he can recover the price, i.e., if the seller’s remedy is to claim damages only, then he cannot claim interest.

Buyer’s remedies against seller
The buyer has the following rights against the seller for breach of contract:
(i)            damages for non-delivery (Sec.57);
(ii)           right of recovery of the price;
(iii)          specific performance (Sec.58); 
(iv)         suit for breach of condition; 
(v)          suit for breach of warranty (Sec.59); 
(vi)         anticipatory breach (Sec.60); 
(vii)        recovery of interest (Sec.61).


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