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solved assignment 2012 Q.2 a) What are the features and objectives of marketing research? [5 marks] b) Give a note on psychoanalytic model of consumer behaviour. [5 marks]

a) Features of Marketing Research
1. It is a systematic process – It has to be carried out in a stepwise and systematic manner and the whole process needs to be planned with a clear objective.
2. It should be objective – It is important that the methods employed and interpretations are objective. The research should not be carried out to establish an opinion nor should it be intentionally suited towards predetermined results.

3. It is multidisciplinary
– Marketing Research draws concepts from other disciplines such as Statistics for obtaining reliable data and from Economics, Psychology and sociology for better understanding of buyers.

Objectives of Marketing Research
Marketing Research may be conducted for different purposes. Based on how organizations use Marketing Research, objectives of Marketing Research can be summarized as follows:
1. To understand why customers buy a product
2. To forecast the probable volume of future sales or expected market share
3. To assess competitive strengths and strategies
4. To evaluate the effectiveness of marketing action already taken
5. To assess customer satisfaction of company’s products/services

b) The Psychoanalytical Model: The psychoanalytical model draws from Freudian Psychology. According to this model, the individual consumer has a complex set of deepseated motives which drive him towards certain buying decisions. The buyer has a private world with all his hidden fears, suppressed desires and totally subjective longings. His buying action can be influenced by appealing to these desires and longings. The psychoanalytical theory is attributed to the work of eminent psychologist Sigmund Freud. Freud introduced personality as a motivating force in human behavior. According to this theory, the mental framework of a human being is composed of three elements, namely,
1. The id or the instinctive, pleasure seeking element. It is the reservoir of the instinctive impulses that a man is born with and whose processes are entirely subconscious. It includes the aggressive, destructive and sexual impulses of man.
2. The superego or the internal filter that presents to the individual the behavioral expectations of society. It develops out of the id, dominates the ego and represents the inhibitions of instinct which is characteristic of man. It represents the moral and ethical elements, the conscience.
3. The ego or the control device that maintains a balance between the id and the superego. It is the most superficial portion of the id. It is modified by the influence of the outside world. Its processes are entirely conscious because it is concerned with the perception of the outside world. The basic theme of the theory is the belief that a person is unable to satisfy all his needs within the bounds of society. Consequently, such unsatisfied needs create tension within an individual which have to be repressed. Such repressed tension is always said to exist in the subconscious and continues to influence consumer behavior.
4. The Sociological Model: According to the sociological model, the individual buyer is influenced by society or intimate groups as well as social classes. His buying decisions are not totally governed by utility; he has a desire to emulate, follow and fit in with his immediate environment.
5. The Nicosia Model: In recent years, some efforts have been made by marketing scholars to build buyer behavior models totally from the marketing man’s standpoint. The Nicosia model and the Howard and Sheth model are two important models in this category. Both of them belong to the category called the systems model, where the human being is analyzed as a system with stimuli as the input to the system and behavior as the output of the system. Francesco Nicosia, an expert in consumer motivation and behavior put forward his model of buyer behavior in 1966.
The model tries to establish the linkages between a firm and its consumer – how the activities of the firm influence the consumer and result in his decision to buy. The messages from the firm first influence the predisposition of the consumer towards the product. Depending on the situation,
he develops a certain attitude towards the product. It may lead to a search for the product or an evaluation of the product. If these steps have a positive impact on him, it may result in a decision to buy. This is the sum and substance of the ‘activity explanations’ in the Nicosia Model. The Nicosia Model groups these activities into four basic fields. Field one has two subfields the firm’s attributes and the consumer’s attributes. An advertising message from the firm reaches the consumer’s attributes. Depending on the way the message is received by the consumer, a certain attribute may develop, and this becomes the input for Field Two. Field Two is the area of search and evaluation of the advertised product and other alternatives. If this process results in a motivation to buy, it becomes the input for Field Three. Field Three consists of the act of purchase. And Field Four consists of the use of the purchased item.


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