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solved assignments of mb0038 Explain sensitivity training.


Answer of  Explain sensitivity training: Sensitivity Training is a form of training that claims to make people more aware of their own prejudices, and more sensitive to others. According to its critics, it involves the use of psychological techniques with groups that its critics, e.g. G. Edward Griffin, claim are often identical to brainwashing tactics. Critics believe these techniques are unethical.

Sensitivity training (also known as T-group, T standing for training).:
This approach evolved from the group dynamics concept of Kurt Lewin and the first sensitivity training session was held in 1946 in State Teachers’ College, New Britain, USA. Since then, it spread to numerous training centers in USA and other countries. Sensitivity training is a small-group interaction process in the unstructured form which requires people to become sensitive to others’ feelings in order to develop reasonable group activity. The objectives of sensitivity training are as follows:

1. To make participants increasingly aware of, and sensitive to, the emotional reactions and expressions in themselves and others.
2. To increase the ability of participants to perceive, and to learn from, the consequences of their actions through attention to their own and others’ feelings.
3. To stimulate the clarification and development of personal values and goals consonant with a democratic and scientific approach to problems of personal and social decisions and actions.
4. To develop achievement of behavioural effectiveness in participants.
5. To develop concepts and theoretical framework for linking personal values and goals to actions consistent with these inner factors and situational requirements.

Process of Sensitivity Training:
Sensitivity training focuses on small group (T-group) with number of members ranging from ten to twelve. T-groups are designed to provide members with experiential learning about group dynamics, leadership and interpersonal relationships. The basic T-group training or sensitivity training is to change the standards, attitudes and behavior of individuals by using psychological techniques and programs. Based on the sources from where these members are drawn, there may be three types of T-group: stranger-lab, cousin-lab, and family-lab. In the stranger-lab, all participants are from different organizations and they are strangers to each other. In cousin-lab, all participants are from the same organization but from different units.

According to his biographer, Alfred J Marrow, Kurt Lewin laid the foundations for sensitivity training in a series of workshops he organised in 1946 to carry out a 'change' experiment, in response to a request from the Director of the Connecticut State Interracial Commission. This led to the founding of the National Training Laboratories in Bethel, Maine in 1947. Kurt Lewin, who met Eric Trist in 1933, influenced the work of the London Tavistock Clinic, both in its work with soldiers during the second world war and in its later work with the Journal Human Relations jointly founded by a partnership of the Tavistock Institute and Lewin's group at MIT.

The nature of modern Sensitivity Training appears to be in some dispute. Its modern critics portray its origins and function in negative terms. Others view the approach as benignly beneficial in many of its historical and contemporary implementations.

During World War II, Psychologists like Carl Rogers in the USA and William Sargant, John Rawlings Rees, and Eric Trist in Britain were used by the military to help soldiers deal with traumatic stress disorders (then known as Shell Shock). This work, which required service to large numbers of patients by a small number of therapists and necessarily emphasized rapidity and effectiveness helped spur the development of group therapy as a treatment technique. Rogers and others evolved their work into new forms including encounter groups designed for persons who were not diagnosably ill but who were recognized to suffer from widespread problems associated with isolation from others common in American society. Other leaders in the development of Encounter Groups, including Will Schutz, centered their work at the Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California.

Meanwhile, Training Groups or T-Groups were being developed at the National Training Labs, now part of the National Education Association. Over time the techniques of T-Groups and Encounter Groups have merged and divided and splintered into specialized topics, seeking to promote sensitivity to others perceived as different and seemingly losing some of their original focus on self-exploration as a means to understanding and improving relations with others in a more general sense.

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