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smu mba assignments MB0047 Q1. Explain DFD & Data Dictionary? Explain in detail how the information requirement is determined for an organization?

Answer: Data Flow Diagrams (DFD)
Data flow diagrams represent the logical flow of data within the system DFD use few symbols, such as circles and rectangles connected by arrows, to represent data flows. DFD can easily illustrate relationships among data, flows, external entities and stores. DFD can also be drawn in increasing levels of detail, starting with a summary high level view and proceeding to more
detailed lower level views.

Rounded rectangle represents processes that transform flow of data or work to be done.

Rectangle represents external agents–the boundary of the system. It is the source or the destination of data.
The open-ended boxes represent data stores, sometimes called files or databases. These data stores correspond to all instances of a single entity in a data model.

Arrow represents data flows, inputs and outputs to end from the processes.

A number of guidelines should be used in constructing DFD:
·         Choose meaningful names for the symbols on the diagram.
·         Number the processes consistently. The numbers do not imply the
·         sequence.
·         Avoid very complex DFD.
·         Make sure that the diagrams are balanced.

Data dictionary
The data dictionary is used to create and store definitions of data, location, format for storage and other characteristics. The data dictionary can be used to retrieve the definition of data that has already been used in an application. The data dictionary also stores some of the description of data structures, such as entities, attributes, and relationships. It can also have software to update itself, to produce reports on its contents, and to answer some of the queries.


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