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smu solution of MH0051 1. Define health. Discuss the demographic profile of India.

ANSWERDefinition of Health
 In simple words health can be defined as a condition of physical, mental, and social well-being and the absence of disease or other abnormal condition.
 Demographic Profile
 India is presently following the demographic transition pattern of all developing countries from initial levels of “high birth rate – high death rate” to the current intermediate transition stage of “high birth rate – low death rate” which leads to high rates of population growth, before
graduating to levels of “low birth rate – low death rate”.
 Age composition: The age distribution of the population of India is projected to change by 2016, and these changes should determine allocation of resources in policy intervention. The population below 15 years of age (currently 35 percent) is projected to decline to 28% by 2016. The population in the age group 15-59 years (currently 58 percent) is projected to increase to nearly 64% by 2016. The age group of 60 plus years is projected to increase from the current levels of 7% to nearly 9% by 2016.
 Inter-state differences: India is a country of striking demographic diversity. Substantial differences are visible between states in the achievement of basic demographic indices. This has led to significant disparity in current population size and the potential to influence population increases during 1996-2016. There are wide inter-state, male-female and rural-urban disparities in outcomes and impacts. These differences stem largely from poverty, illiteracy, and inadequate access to health and family welfare services, which coexist and reinforce each other. In many parts, the widespread health infrastructure is not responsive.
 Maternal mortality: With 16% of the world's population, India accounts for over 20% of the world's maternal deaths. The maternal mortality ratio, defined as the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, is incredibly high at 408 per 100,000 live births for the country (1997), which is unacceptable when compared to current indices elsewhere in Asia.

Infant mortality: It is estimated that about 7% of new-born infants perish within a year. Poor maternal health results in low birth weight and premature babies. Infant and childhood diarrhoeal diseases, acute respiratory infections and malnutrition contribute to high infant mortality rates.

Sex ratio: India shares a distinctive feature of South Asian and Chinese populations as regards the sex ratio, with a century's old deficit of females. The (female to male) sex ratio has been steadily declining. From 1901 to 1991, the sex ratio has declined from 972 to 927. 

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