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smu solution of assignment of mb0048 Q1. Discuss the methodology of Operations Research. Explain in brief the phases of Operations Research.

Answer:
Operation Research: The application of scientific methods, techniques and tools to the operation of a system with optimum solutions to the problemswhere 'optimum' refers to the best possible alternative. The objective of OR is to provide a scientific basis to the decision
makers for solving problems involving interaction with various components of the organisation.
Methodology of Operations Research
1. Definition: The first and the most important step in the OR approach of problem solving is to define the problem. One needs to ensure that the problem is identified properly because this problem statement will indicate the following three major aspects:
· Description of the goal or the objective of the study
· Identification of the decision alternative to the system
· Recognition of the limitations, restrictions, and requirements of the system
2. Construction: Based on the problem definition, you need to identify and select the most appropriate model to represent the system. A model gives a perspective picture of the whole problem and helps in tackling it in a well-organised manner.
3. Solution: After deciding on an appropriate model, you need to develop a solution for the model and interpret the solution in the context of the given problem. An optimum solution is one which maximises or minimises the performance of any measure in a model subject to the conditions and constraints imposed on the model.
4. Validation: A model is a good representation of a system. However, the optimal solution must work towards improving the system’s performance. You can test the validity of a model by comparing its performance with some past data available from the actual system.

5. Implementation: We need to apply the optimal solution obtained from the model to the system and note the improvement in the performance of the system. You need to validate this performance check under changing conditions.
Phases of Operations Research
1) Judgment phase
•Determination of the operations
•Establishment of objectives and values related to the operations
•Determination of suitable measures of effectiveness
•Formulation of problems relative to the objectives
2) Research phase
•Operation and data collection for a better understanding of the problems
•Formulation of hypothesis and model
•Observation and experimentation to test the hypothesis on the basis of additional data
•Prediction of various results and consideration of alternative methods
3) Action phase
This phase involves making recommendations for the decision process. 

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