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smu solved assignments of QM0015 Q1. Explain the following a) Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) b) Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) c) Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)

Answer: a)    Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP)
APQP is developed in the late 1980s by a commission of experts gathered from the big three US automobile manufacturers: Ford, GM and Chrysler.

It is a framework of procedures and techniques used to develop products in industry, particularly the automotive industry. It serves as a guide, a standard way to share results between suppliers and automotive companies.

APQP specify three phases: Development, Industrialisation and Product Launch. Through
these phases some main topics will be monitored. These main topics will be all completed before the production is started.

·         The APQP process has seven major elements:
·         Understanding the customer needs
·         Proactive feedback and corrective action
·         Designing within the process capabilities
·         Analysing and decreasing failure modes
·         Verification and validation
·         Design reviews
·         Control special / critical characteristics

b)    Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)

Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is methodology for identifying potential reliability problems early in the development cycle where it is easier to take actions to overcome these issues, thereby enhancing reliability through design. It simply talks about “What can go wrong?” with the product.
FMEA is used to identify potential failure modes, determine their effect on the operation of the product, and identify actions to decrease the failures. A crucial step in this methodology is anticipating what might go wrong with a product. While evaluating every failure mode is not possible, the development team should formulate as extensive a list of potential failure modes as possible.
Benefits of FMEA

FMEA is designed to assist the engineer to improve the quality and reliability of design process. Properly used the FMEA provides several benefits some of them are:

·         Improve product/process reliability and quality
·         Achieve customer satisfaction
·         Early identification and mitigating potential product/process failure modes

c)    Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)

PPAP is used in the automotive supply chain to build confidence in component suppliers and their production processes.

The Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) provides customers with confirmation that

·         Component suppliers have understood their requirements
·         The product meets the customer requirements
·         The production process is capable of consistently producing conforming product

PPAP is an important part of the product development process, allowing producers to examine the components and sub-systems which they receive from suppliers, and establishing confidence in the supplier's management systems.

Even though individual manufacturers have their own particular requirements, the Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG) has developed a common PPAP standard as part of the Advanced Product Quality Planning Process (APQP) and encouraging the use of common terminology and standard forms to document project status.

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