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MCA solved assignments MCA1010 –Q1. Define CPU. What are the three sub units of CPU? Explain each.

Answer: The central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic brain of the computer. The CPU in a personal computer is usually a single chip. It organizes and carries out instructions that come
from either the user or from the software. The processor is made up of many components, but two of them are worth mentioning at this point. These are the arithmetic and logic unit and the


control unit. The control unit controls the electronic flow of information around the computer.
The arithmetic logic unit, ALU, is responsible for mathematical calculations and logical comparisons.

The CPU has three important sub units.
1. Arithmetic-Logic unit
2. Control Unit
3. Memory Unit

Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU):
The ALU is an electronic circuit used to carry out the arithmetic operations like addition,subtraction, multiplication and division. This unit carries out logical operations like greater than,less than, equal to etc. It performs the operation on the data provided by the input devices. A comparison operation allows a program to make decisions based on its data input and results of the previous calculations. Logical operations can be used to determine whether particular statement is TRUE or FALSE.
The ALU operates on the data available in the main memory and sends them back after processing again to main memory.
Control Unit: The control unit coordinates the activities of all the other units in the system. Its main functions are to control the transfer of data and information between various units and to initiate appropriate actions by the arithmetic-logic unit. Conceptually, the control unit fetches instructions from the memory, decodes them, and directs them to various units to perform the specified tasks.
The main memory is also called primary memory, is used to store data temporarily. Although, the CPU is the brain behind all the operations in the computer, it needs to be supplied with the
data to be processed and the instructions to tell it what to do. Once the CPU has carried out an instruction, it needs the result to be stored. This storage space is provided by the computer’s
memory. Data provided by the input device, and the result of that processed data is also stored in the memory nit.

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