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solved assignments of MB0050 - Q1. Briefly describe the different steps involved in a research process. Distinguish between descriptive and causal research studies.

AnswerThe management dilemma

Any research starts with the need and desire to know more. This is essentially the management dilemma. It could be the researcher himself or herself or it could be a business manager who gets the
study by done by a researcher.

Defining the research problem
 This is the first and the most critical step of the research journey. For example, a soft drink manufacturer who is making and selling aerated drinks now wants to expand his business. He wants to know whether moving into bottled water would be a better idea or he should look at fruit juice based drinks. Thus, a comprehensive and detailed survey of the bottled water as well as the fruit juice market will have to be done.

Formulating the research hypotheses
 In the model, we have drawn broken lines to link defining the research problem stage to the hypotheses formulation stage. The reason is that every research study might not always begin with a hypothesis; in fact, the task of the study might be to collect detailed data that might lead to, at the end of the study, some indicative hypotheses to be tested in subsequent research.

Developing the research proposal
 Once the management dilemma has been converted into a defined problem and a working hypothesis, the next step is to develop a plan of investigation.

Descriptive research:
 The main goal of descriptive research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The annual census carried out by the Government  of India is an example of descriptive research. The census describes the number of people living in a particular area. It also gives other related data about them. It is contemporary and time-bound.
  
 Causal research
 Causal research studies explore the effect of one thing on another and more specifically, the effect of one variable on another. For example, if a fast-food outlet currently sells vegetarian fare, what will be the impact on sales if the price of the vegetarian food is increased by 10 per cent. Causal research studies are highly structured and require a rigid sequential approach to sampling, data collection and data analysis. This kind of research, like research in pure sciences, requires experimentation to establish causality. In majority of the situations, it is quantitative in nature and requires statistical testing of the information collected.

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