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solved mca assignments of MCA4010 - Q1. Write short notes on: a) Central Processing Unit b) Memory Unit

Answer: Central Processing Unit:
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) performs the actual processing of data. The data it processes is obtained, via the system bus, from the main memory. Results from the CPU are then sent back
to main memory via the system bus. In addition to computation the CPU controls and coordinates the operation of the other major
components. The CPU has two main components,namely:
1. The Control Unit -- controls the fetching of instructions from the main memory and the subsequent execution of these instructions. Among other tasks carried out are the control
of input and output devices and the passing of data to the Arithmetic/Logical Unit for computation.
2. The Arithmetic/Logical Unit (ALU) -- carries out arithmetic operations on integer (whole number) and real (with a decimal point) operands. It can also perform simple logical tests
for equality and greater than and less than between operands.
It is worth noting here that the only operations that the CPU can carry out are simple arithmetic operations, comparisons between the result of a calculation and other values, and the selection of the next instruction for processing. All the rest of the apparently limitless things a computer can do are built on this very primitive base by programming.

Memory Unit
Memory is a temporary storage of data when processing is done. Registers are the memory units inside the Processor. Memory unit stores the data, instructions, intermediate results and output
temporarily, during the processing of data. This memory is also called the main memory or primary memory of the computer. The input data that is to be processed will be usually brought
into the main memory before processing. It also stores the instructions required for processing of data and any intermediate results.
The output is stored in memory before being transferred to the output device. CPU can work with the information stored in the main memory. The following points are important as far as
memory is concerned.

1. RAM
2. Cache
3. ROM
4. Virtual

Different kinds of primary memory are Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only
Memory (ROM). We can read and write data in RAM but it is 
volatile meaning whenever the power is switched off the contents of RAM is lost. So it is required to store the data in the
secondary memory if the data is required for the future use.


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