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Spring 2014 MBA solved assignments of MB0039 Q1. As a speaker you are addressing a group of people. Explain the elements involved in this communication.

AnswerWhile addressing a group of people, all communication consists of certain
key elements.
· Sender or encoder This is the person who transmits a message. For
example, a manager writing a letter to a consultant after a meeting or a
sales manager making a presentation to the sales team. Here the

manager is the sender
· Receiver or decoder The person who notices and decodes, or
attaches some meaning to a message. Decoding may not always be
accurate and a wrong meaning may be attached to a message. For
example, a friendly joke might be taken as an offence, or feedback given
to a subordinate by a superior might be taken in the wrong sense.
· Message This is any signal that triggers the response of a receiver.
Messages may be intentional (as in the example of the sales
presentation by a manager to the sales team) or unintentional (nonverbal
signals such as yawns that convey the message of boredom).
· Channel This refers to the medium or the method used to deliver the
message. As a business executive, you will often have a choice of
channels. For example, you could communicate with a customer through
a letter, email or telephone.
· Feedback Most communication is two-way. Receivers generally
respond to messages. For example, students may ask questions during
a lecture session and an employer may tell an employee that he has to
think about his proposal. This response to a sender’s message is called
feedback. This kind of feedback is oral. Sometimes feedback can also
be given in a written form. For example, a manager can send a written
response to a customer’s letter of complaint. At other times, feedback
could be non-verbal, as in smiles and nods of appreciation during a talk
or presentation. Even failure to respond could be considered as
feedback, since it may indicate a lack of interest or indifference to the
Business Communication Unit 1
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 7
sender’s message. Due to the element of feedback, people are
simultaneously senders and receivers of information in face-to-face
· Context This refers to the setting in which the communication takes
place and could sometimes determine the success or failure of the
communication. Context can be classified as follows:
o Physical context This refers to the physical surroundings. For
example, a work or social environment, in which the communication
takes place. Asking your boss for a promotion might be received
differently, depending on whether the communication takes place in
your office, your boss’ office, at a company party or over lunch at a
o Social context This refers to the relationship between the sender
and the receiver. Taking the same example, asking for a promotion
is likely to be received differently, depending on how well you get
along with your boss and whether you are personal friends or not.
o Chronological context This refers to time related factors that
could influence the communication. For example, is your request
made first thing in the morning or at the fag end of the day? Is it
made during or after work hours? Is it made at a time when the
company is going through problems such as a strike in the factory, or
major losses?
o Cultural context This refers to the similarity of backgrounds
between the sender and the receiver, such as age, language,
nationality, religion and gender. These factors could influence the
communication favourably or unfavourably.


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