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smu mba assignments MB0044 - PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT Q1. Explain the four basic varieties of layouts for manufacturing facilities.

AnswerThe four basic varieties of layouts for manufacturing facilities are:
  • Product layout
  • Process layout
  • Group technology layout
  • Fixed position layout
Product layout: Product layout commonly referred to as 'line layout', focuses on the sequence of production or assembly operations required for manufacturing or assembling a part or a product. These are used in mass or continuous production. Examples are automobile assembly, cement manufacturing, oil refining.
Process layout: This type of layout is concerned with the grouping of machines, process, or
services according to their function. This grouping of machines by function is characteristic of job shops and batch type production facilities. Hence this type of layout is also called as functional layout. Process layout typically uses general purpose machines that can be changed over rapidly to new operations for different product designs.
Group technology layout: In group technology, machines are grouped into a cell. The cell acts like a product layout which is land within a larger process layout environment. It requires that each cell process is a family of parts that have many common characteristics, such as machining operations, similar machine set - ups and common raw materials. Due to these common characteristics, the parts can be produced in a different path through a cell much like a product layout.
Fixed position layout: In this type of layout, the product is located in a fixed position and all the resources like workers, materials, machines and equipment's are transported to that location. Missile assembly, large aircraft assembly, ship construction and bridge construction are examples of fixed-position layouts. These layouts are used when a product is bulky, large, heavy or fragile. These minimise the amount of product movement required. 

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