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MBA assignments answers for Sikkim manipal university

MBA Semester 4                                                 FALL 2014

Q1. Write short notes on:
a) Measuring exchange rate movements
b) Factors that influence exchange rates

a) Measuring exchange rate movements
Exchange rates respond quickly to all sorts of events - both economic and noneconomic.
The movement of exchange rates is the result of the combined effect of a number of factors that are constantly at play. Economic factors, also called fundamentals, are better guides as to how a currency moves in the long run. Source:

Q2. The key component of the financial system is the money market that acts as a fulcrum of monetary operations.
Write down the important points under each category mentioned below.
a) Functions performed by money market
b) International interest rates
c) Standardized Global Market regulations.

a) Functions performed by money market

There are three broad functions that are performed by the money market.
1. For the demand and supply of short term funds, the money market provides an equilibrating mechanism.
2. It helps the lenders and the borrowers of the short term funds in fulfilling the borrowing and investment requirements at a competent market clearing price.

Q3. Thousands of years back the concept of bartering between parties was prevalent, when the concept of money had not evolved.
Explain on counter trade with examples.

Countertrade means exchanging goods or services which are paid for, in whole or part, with other goods or services, rather than with money. A monetary valuation can however be used in counter trade for accounting purposes. In dealings between sovereign states, the term bilateral trade is used. OR "Any transaction involving exchange of Source:

Q4. There are different techniques of exposure management. One is the Managing Transaction Exposure and the other one is the managing operating exposure
So you have to explain on both Managing Transaction Exposure and Managing Operating Exposure.

Managing Transaction Exposure

Transaction exposure calculates gains or losses which occur after the current financial compulsions according to terms of reference are resolved. Taken that the deal would lead to a future inflow or outflow of foreign currency cash, any unprecedented alterations in rate of exchange amid the period in which transaction is entered and the time Source:

Q5. Every firm is going on concern, whether domestic or MNC.
Explain the techniques of capital budgeting and the steps to determine cash flows.

Techniques of Capital Budgeting
There are many techniques which can be used to analyze the projects. These techniques can be broadly classified into discounted cash flow techniques, which include net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), profitability index (PI) and discounted payback methods, and non-discounted cash flow techniques which include Source:

Q6. Write short note on:
American Depository Receipts(ADR)
Global Depository Receipts(GDR)

American Depository Receipts(ADR)

It represents ownership in the shares of a non-US company and trades in the American stock markets. ADRs enable American investors to buy shares in foreign company without any issue of cross-border and cross-currency Source:
                                                                                                                                                                         FALL 2014

IB0011: International Marketing
                 Q1. Discuss the different management orientations of a company. How does it affect international marketing?
Management Orientations

The form and substance of a company’s response to global business opportunities depend greatly on management’s assumptions or beliefs – both conscious and unconscious – about the nature of the world. The worldview of a company’s personnel can be described as ethnocentric, polycentric, regiocentric, and geocentric. Management at a Source:

Q2. Discuss how culture plays an important role in international marketing. Give some examples of advertisements which failed due to lack of cultural understanding.

Though society and culture do not appear to be a part of business situations, yet they are actually key elements in showing how business activities will be conducted, what goods will be produced, and through what means they will be sold to establishing industrial and management patterns and determining the success or failure of a local Source:

Q3. Explain different types of cost based pricing.

Full cost pricing, fixed cost pricing, freight & insurance and marginal cost pricing are popular cost based pricing methods.

1. Full Cost Method or Cost-plus Method: The most frequently used pricing method in export is cost-plus method. This method is based on the full cost or total cost approach. In arriving at the export pricing under this method the total cost of production of the article (fixed or variable) is taken into account. Over and above the fixed and variable cost incurred in the production of exportable article all direct and indirect expenses incurred for the development of Source:

Q4. Tobacco companies are targeting China as Chinese are heavy smokers. Which segmentation is this and what are the other international market segmentations?

Chinese segmentation: Tobacco companies are targeting China where there is a huge market due to their smoking behaviour, despite their low income, are willing to pay for Tobacco product  just due to their habits.

Q5. Write short notes on:
a) e Marketing
b) Spot and forward rates

a) e Marketing

E-marketing involves the marketing of products or services on the internet. Successful E-marketing requires good search engine marketing strategies. The primary purpose of marketing an online business is the promotion of a good or service. E-marketing makes extensive use of the available tools for getting web users to purchase a product or Source:

Q6. Discuss the role and activities of World Bank.

World Bank: Origin: Conceived at the UN Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods (New Hampshire, USA) in July 1944, the IBRD, frequently called the World Bank, began operations in June 1946, its purpose being to provide funds, policy guidance and technical assistance to facilitate economic development in its poorer member countries.
FALL 2014
IB0012 – Management of Multinational Corporations
Q1. Discuss the relationship between international business and international organizations. What could be the objectives of going international?

Relationship between International Business and International Organizations
The international business is increasing day by day and its importance is widely recognized. A number of international organizations have been set up to facilitate, regulate, measure and even finance international trade. Some of these organizations are worldwide and some are regional organizations. Some international organizations Source:

Q2. Discuss the following theories of international trade:
a) Comparative cost advantage theory
b) Porter’s theory

a) Comparative cost advantage theory: David Ricardo in 1817 advocated that even though a nation held an absolute advantage in production of two goods, the two countries could still trade with mutual benefit. Two countries could both benefit from trade if each had a relative advantage in production. In simple terms it can be said that a country specializes in production of those commodities where it has comparative cost advantage, i.e, where its costs are less Source:

Q3. Many countries are apprehensive about permitting MNCs operations. What are the possible reasons for this?

MNCs are not widely welcome by many host countries. The critics of MNCs argue their case on following grounds:
i) On political grounds, it is argued that MNCs indulge in violation of human rights, promotion of corruption among politicians, support to terrorist groups and sometimes even in destabilizing the government in the host countries. Source:

Q4. Compare the management styles in USA and Japan.

Management styles in USA: U.S.A. being a democratic country, US managers are often  under pressure to show better financial results. Americans usually stay in their managerial positions only a relatively short time.

American management style can be described as individualistic in approach, in so far as managers are accountable for the decisions made within their areas of responsibility. Although important decisions might be discussed in open Source:

Q5. Explain the scope of comparative management.

The scope of comparative management in managing multinational companies are as follows:

(i) Ability to manage cultural diversity: Managers face difficulties when they work in another culture. People, having different mental programmes, see situations differently and apply different approaches and solutions to problems. When a person starts to function internationally, an understanding of culture and its effect on behavior, Source:

Q6. Write short notes on:
a) Ethical issues in international management
b) Social responsibility

a) meaning and role of Ethical issues in international management: International business can take various forms ranging from export-import trade to setting up manufacturing units in foreign countries. MNCs are largest players in the international business. These companies face challenges arising from differences in ethics of various Source:

FALL 2014
IB0013 –Export Import management
Q1. Describe in brief the export packaging and packing. Explain with examples the purpose of marking.

Export Packaging and Packing: Today packaging is considered as one of the most important elements for marketing any product. Nobody can underscore the need for good packaging when he decides to export his product. Packaging means packing of the product in some container to reach the ultimate consumer. Packing means protective covering used for transportation and shipment of goods. Packaging fulfills a vital role in helping to get the Source:

Q2. What are the various modes of payment by the importer? Discuss.

Payment by the Importer
There are four methods of payment for the international transactions. This includes the Cash-in-advance method, Letter of Credit, Documentary collections and the Open Account.

Q3. List the Principal and auxiliary export documents. Explain any two auxiliary export documents.

The following 16 commercial documents involved at the pre-shipment stage can be divided into
i) Principal Export Documents
ii) Auxiliary Export Documents

Q4. Discuss the objectives and components of Electronic data interchange.

Objectives: The objective of EDI system is to facilitate acceptance of documents electronically and exchange information electronically between agencies involved in international business. The system replaces all manual operations. DGFT has also introduced the EDI system in its operations. The basic purpose of EDI is to improve Source:

Q5. Explain the risks covered and not covered under credit risk insurance.

Risks Covered under the Policy
Under the Shipment (Comprehensive Risk) Policy, the Corporation covers, from the date of shipment, the following risks.

Q6. Write short notes on:
a) Pre shipment finance
b) Post shipment finance

a) Pre shipment finance: Pre-shipment finance is concerned primarily with the grant of packing credit to enable the eligible exporters to procure raw materials and for processing, manufacturing, packing, transportation and all such expenditure to enable them to prepare the export consignment and ship it.
FALL 2014
Q1. Explain the concept of merchant banking. Write general obligations and responsibilities of merchant bankers.

Merchant banking was initiated and grew in Europe. It was enhanced by American patronage by offering services to both banking and non-banking institutions. Merchant banks are a kind of diversification of banking services and were originally the real form of banks. The ancient practice of merchant banking was associated with financing the Source:

Q2. Write short notes on:
a) Pre-issue activities of merchant banker
b) Post-issue activities of merchant banker
c) Book building 75 percent  

Pre-issue activities:
  • The lead merchant banker shall carry out due diligence.
  • During the carrying out of due diligence, the merchant banker needs to research information on offering, authenticity and adequacy of disclosure in the offer documents.
·         Source:

Q3. What is loan syndication? Explain the benefits of loan (Credit) Syndication and various instruments for loan syndication.

Loan syndication: Syndicated loans emerged in the US market with the buyout deals and in the European market, with the launch of the euro. Syndicated loans or consortium banking/loans should not be confused with multiple banking. In case of syndicated or consortium banking, all the bankers and finance institutions provide loans to a single borrower after following a common appraisal system or arrangement which is carried on very systematically. Source:

Q4. Explain all the types of leasing. Explain the limitation and problems in leasing.

Types of Leasing
(i) Financial and operating lease
In the case of a financial lease, the lessor transfers all types of rewards and risks associated with the underlying asset of the lease contract to the lessee.

Q5. Explain the features of factoring. Write the advantages and disadvantages of factoring.

Some of the essential features of factoring are discussed below.
(i) It is a financial service in which the factor converts credit sales of clients business into cash, on the payment of some commission against account receivables.

Q6. Write the features of money markets in India. Explain the participants in the money market.

Various reforms have been initiated in the money market in India. One of the significant initiatives is an attempt to increase transparency. The Sukhamoy Chakravarty Committee, Narayanan Vaghul Committee and Narsimham Committee are associated with a review of the Indian monetary system and setting of reform guidelines for the Source:
FALL 2014
Q1. Write the functioning of the financial system. Explain about cross border financing.

Functioning of the Financial System
An effective and efficient financial system performs the following functions:
  • Provides a payment system for the exchange of goods and services
  • Permits multiple payment mechanisms (cash, cheque, demand draft, credit card, electronic fund transfer etc.).
·         Source:

Q2. Explain the role of a Treasury Manager or Treasurer. Give the differences between a treasury of a corporate and a bank.

Role of a Treasury Manager or Treasurer
(i) Balance sheet management: A crucial element of balance sheet management is the pricing of treasury assets and liabilities. Besides this, balance sheet management is obviously a proactive and continuous process. The treasury manager must conduct regular market analysis in terms of changes and controls and keep updating the balance sheet accordingly.

Q3. What is call money market? Write the advantages of call market.
Explain about the commercial papers with its advantages.

Call Money Market
Call money market or inter-bank money market is where surplus funds of banks are mostly traded. Borrowings in the call money market are for a short duration, usually between an overnight and a fortnight to meet transient defaults. These are loans repayable on demand at the option of the lender or borrower. Hence, the name ‘call’ Source:

Q4. Give an introduction of Foreign Exchange Exposure Management and write about the three types of exposures with examples.

Any company that has a commitment to receive foreign currency payments in the future or pay any foreign currency in the future is subject to foreign exchange risk due to adverse movements in foreign exchange rates. Being at risk to such movements in foreign currency is called currency exposure. Foreign exchange exposure is a measure of the Source:

Q5. Write short notes on:
a) Regulatory Pressure
b) Regulatory Arbitrage
c) Treasury Product Development

a) Regulatory Pressure: For an economy and, especially the financial system, to develop on healthy lines, it is essential that self-regulation be accorded priority. After the global economic crisis of 2008, the effects of which we are still experiencing, it has become more important for countries and international organizations to supervise the Source:

Q6. Treasury has become an integral part of business function. How does Information Technology (IT) play an effective role? Write about the Treasury Information Systems.

Treasury has become an integral part of all business functions. To bolster its functioning and to safe-guard the business from possible financial crisis, financial institutions and corporate houses are using state-of-the art Source:

FALL 2014
Q1. Explain the role of RBI in growth of Corporate Banking. Write the principles of lending to corporate sector.

Role of RBI in Growth of Corporate Banking
In India, RBI has both direct and indirect control on credit delivery system being extended to the corporate sector. The RBI issues regulations from time to time about allocation of credit, interest rate regulations, margin requirements, qualitative aspects of monitoring, individual corporate exposure norms etc. to be adhered to by banks. Various measures are taken by RBI to ensure effective delivery of credit by way of direct monitoring and follow-up Source:

Q2. Write short notes on:
a) Loan Syndication
b) Commercial Paper
c) Certificate of Deposit

a) Loan Syndication: Like consortium finance, loan syndication is also an arrangement where a group of banks consider a loan to a borrower for larger amount. However, this process is slightly different from consortium loan. The following are the features of loan syndication:
(a) The borrower approaches a bank, known as the lead manager, to arrange credit and offers the credit terms.

Q3. Letter of Credit is a letter from bank guaranteeing that a buyer payment to a seller will be received on time and for the correct amount.
Give a brief introduction of letter of credit and write the complete mechanism of letter of credit. Explain the types of letter of credit.

Letter of credit is a method of settlement of payment of a trade transaction and is widely used to finance purchase of machinery and raw material etc. It contains a written undertaking given by the bank on behalf of the purchaser to the seller to make payment of a stated amount on presentation of stipulated documents and fulfilment of all the terms Source:
Q4. Forfaiting was originated in 1960. It is an international supply chain financing.
Explain the process of forfaiting and its characteristics. Write the differences between

Factoring and Forfaiting.
The forfaitor originated in early 1960s when the trade links between Western and Eastern Europe ware renewed. This was when the rising significance of trade with developing nations in Asia, Africa and Latin America brought Source:

Q5. Explain the internal and external reasons for industrial sickness.
Internal reasons for industrial sickness

(a) Inefficient management practices: One of the important reasons responsible for industrial sickness is inefficient management practices and policies followed by entrepreneurs.

(b) Marketing constraints: Another factor responsible for industrial sickness is the marketing constraints faced by the unit. This may be on account of inaccurate demand estimation of the product, inappropriate material mix adversely affecting the quality of the product, inefficient product planning, over-dependency on a few buyers and

Q6. Explain the main features of Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA). Give the differences between Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA) and FEMA.

Main Features
  • Activities such as payments made to any person outside India or receipts from them, along with deals in foreign exchange and foreign security are restricted. It is FEMA that gives the central government the power to impose restrictions.

FALL 2014
Q1. In Development Finance Institution (DFI) explain the changing face of DFIs in India. Write about the challenges faced by DFIs and reorientation of DFIs.

Changing Face of DFIs in India  
DFIs are government-controlled institutions that invest in sustainable private sector projects with the twofold objective of spurring development in emerging economies while themselves remaining financially viable.
·         A DFI distinguishes itself by a judicious balance between commercial norms of operation, as adopted by any private financial institution, and developmental obligations.
·         Source:

Q2. Give a brief introduction of Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI). Explain the important schemes of SIDBI. Write any few challenges in financing Small Scale Industries (SSIs).

Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI)
SIDBI was set up on 2 April 1990 under an Act of Parliament, as a Wholly Owned Subsidiary (WOS) of IDBI, but was delinked in March 2000. SIDBI is the apex financial institution for the promotion, financing and development of MSME sector and for co-ordination of the functions of the institutions engaged in lending to MSMEs.

Q3. Explain the role of Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs) in agricultural finance. Explain the RBIs regulation over DFIs.

Role of Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs)
NBFCs are companies registered under Companies Act, 1956 and regulated by the RBI. The RBI introduced a new regulatory framework for those NBFCs who want to accept public deposits and act as MFIs. Since NBFCs are more preferred legal form, many MFIs want to take this form but for this, they have to satisfy the relevant RBI Source:

Q4. Write about the Power Finance Corporation Limited (PFC). Explain about Indian Railways Finance Corporation (IRFC) and Venture Capital Funds(VCFs).

Power Finance Corporation Limited (PFC)
The PFC was formed with an objective to provide financial assistance to the power and its allied sectors and also to act as a catalyst for bringing about institutional improvements in the functions of the borrowing power sector companies. It helps in the optimum utilisation of the resources available and mobilisation of resources from both within and outside India. PFC is registered as a NBFC under the RBI Act and RBI has classified it as an Source:

Q5. Explain the role of technology in institutional banking and also write about the advantages and challenges of technology in institutional banking.

Role of Technology in Institutional Banking
Technology plays a dominant role in effectively managing the business of DFIs. Though banks have made tremendous achievements through information technology, they need to make better use of the newer technologies that are being evolved every day, by extending their services to all sections of the society. The use of technology in out-of-reach areas can play a significant role in providing financial services to industries located in backward and Source:

Q6. Give short notes on:
 External Commercial Borrowings(ECBs)
 Board for Financial Supervision(BFS)
 Prompt Corrective Action(PCA) scheme
 Management of Non-Performing Assets (NPAs)

External Commercial Borrowings(ECBs): Reflecting the changes in their operating environment, there has been a shift in the business profile of DFIs. A major change, which has taken place in the financing of investment activity by the DFIs, has been the growing importance of non-fund-based business. The increased access to corporates in the international capital markets has affected DFIs foreign currency business. Due to the recent guidelines issued by RBI (year 2011-12), financial institutions can now have access to funds from abroad. They can use the ECB route to Source:

Fall 2014
MB0052 - Strategic Management and Business Policy
Q1. Describe the role of five major participants in the Strategic Management Process (SMP) of a company.

The major participants in the Strategic Management Process are:
1. Board of directors
2. Chief Executive Officer (CEO)
3. Corporate planning staff
4. Other managers
5. Consultants

Role of Board of Directors
In any organizational hierarchy, the board of directors is the apex/highest level body. The board is the final authority in managing the affairs of a company, strategic or non-strategic. They Source:

Q2. Differentiate between mission and vision of a company? Explain with examples.
Vision statement

A vision statement defines the purpose and principles of an organization in terms of the values of the organization. It is a concise and motivating statement that guides the employees to select the procedures to attain the goals. Vision statement is the framework of strategic planning. A vision statement describes the future ambition of an organization. A vision is the ability to view Source:

Q3. Explain in detail Porter’s four generic strategies.

Porter’s four generic strategies
·         Cost leadership
·         Focuses cost leadership
·         Differentiation
·         Focused differentiation
Cost leadership
Cost leadership strategy is adopted by the organisations to produce a relatively standardised products or services to the customer. It must be acceptable to the characteristics as mentioned by customers. Customers value the company if it adopts cost leadership strategy.

Q4. Differentiate between core competence and distinctive competence.

Core competence

Core competencies are those skills that are critical for a business to achieve competitive advantage. These skills enable a business to deliver essential customer benefit like the selection of a product or service by a customer. Core competency is the key strength of business because it comprises the essential skills. These are the central areas of expertise of Source:

Q5. Define the term ‘industry’. List the types of industries. How do you conduct an industry analysis?

An industry can be broadly defined as ‘the group of firms producing products  that are close substitutes for each other’.There is, however, a great deal of controversy over an appropriate definition of industry. The debate or controversy mostly centers around ‘how close substitutability needs to be in terms of product,process or geographic market boundaries’. For Source:

Q6. What is meant by ‘structure of an organisation’? Describe the five major structural types or forms of an organisation.

Structure of an organization defines the levels and roles of management in a hierarchical way. One can also say that an organizational structure spells out the way tasks, functions and responsibilities are allocated for implementing a policy or strategy. These also imply that an organizational structure facilitates or constrains how processes and relationships work.2 An Source:

                                                                                                                                                                         Fall 2014
MBA Semester 4
MB0053: International Business Management
Q1. “Environment scanning is an important part of international business.” Explain your views on this statement and discuss what factors need to be scanned.
Environment scanning is an important part of international business because environmental scanning is a process of gathering, analyzing, and dispensing information for tactical or strategic purposes. The environmental scanning process entails obtaining both factual and subjective information on the business environments in which a company is operating or considering entering Environmental scanning is the internal communication of external information about

Q2. What is FDI? Why is it considered as the best option for a developing country like India?

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): foreign direct investment where a parent company starts a new venture in a foreign country by constructing new operational facilities from the ground up. In addition to building new facilities, most parent companies also create new long-term jobs in the foreign country by hiring new employees. Different authors have classified foreign investment in different parameters. However, the most commonly acceptable method of classifying the foreign Source:

Q3. Regional integration is helping the countries in growing their trade. Discuss this statement. Describe in brief the various types of regional integrations.
Regional integration can be defined as the unification of countries into a larger whole. It also reflects a country’s willingness to share or unify into a larger whole. The level of integration of a country with other countries is determined by what it shares and how it shares. Regional Source:

Q4. Write short note on:
a) Licensing
b) Joint venture

a) Licensing
A domestic company can license foreign firms to use the company’s technology or products and distribute the company’s product. By licensing, the domestic company need not bear any costs and risks of entering foreign markets on its own, yet it is able to generate income from royalties. The reverse of this arrangement is the risk of providing valuable technological knowledge to foreign companies, and thereby losing some degree of control over its use. Monitoring licenses Source:

Q5. Explain the Top-down and Bottom-up approach of planning.

Top-down planning
Top-down planning is a common strategy that is used for project planning. It helps maintain the decision making process at the senior level. Goals and allowances are established at the highest level. Senior-level managers have to be very specific when laying out expectations because the people following the plan are not involved in the planning process. It is very important to keep the morale of the employees high and motivate them to perform the job. Since

Q6. Discuss the importance of ethics in international business.

Importance of business ethics
Ethics is significant in all areas of business and plays an important role in ensuring a successful business. The role of business ethics is evident from the conception of an idea to the sale of a product. In an organisation, every division such as sales and marketing, customer service, Source:


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