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Free solved assignments of MB0038 –Q1. Discuss the principles of Management by Henri Fayol.

There are fourteen principles of management which Henri Fayol enunciated. This has wide acceptance which is described in detail as follows:
1. Division of labour
We saw in the case how everyone was doing their own job. 
2. Authority and responsibility coexist
If the manager is given the responsibility to run his hotel in a specified manner, he should be given the formal authority to do so and if he has been given the authority, he has to be responsible for the right and wrong things going on.
3. Unity of command
This means that one person should report to only one boss. This principle has undergone considerable changes, and we now have ideas like adhocracy or matrix organisations where
a person may report to multiple bosses.
4. Unity of direction
If you have many guests checking into Green Path, we need many people to do the foot massage. This needs one plan and one way of doing it. Also it is preferable that the same people serve the welcome drink and carry the baggage to the rooms. If we do that, there will be better direction in the work since these works can be grouped under, receiving the guest, showing hospitality, giving them some physical comfort and then getting him settled in his room. This is creating unity of direction or one head one plan.
5. Equity
Equity is a combination of fairness, justice, and empathy. It does not mean absence of assertive action rather existence of it to ensure fairness for all. This does not mean giving all the same reward but rewarding according to one’s effort. In fact, the idea of productivitybased incentives emanates from the principle of equity.
6. Order
In the case, we saw how the service staff was moving around smoothly and doing their job. You might have observed how things are kept in order in a Maruti Genuine Workshop as against a wayside workshop. Appointing the most suitable person for a job is also part of this principle of order. 
7. Discipline
Having clearly defined the superiors, subordinates, norms, procedures, rules, and regulations, adherence to these is an essential principle of management. 
8. Initiative
When the workers are encouraged to do things which are not strictly defined but which add to the productivity, cost reduction, etc. which are the objectives of management, the workers enjoy doing their job and efficiency and effectiveness increase just like the front office manager who took the initiative to negotiate full room tariff rather than yield to a request for discount.
9. Fairness
Fairness in remuneration and the way people are treated in reward implies reward and recognition keeping in mind the current market rate, the living needs of the workers, safe working conditions, medical facilities, wages being linked to the nature of the work and being reasonable in everything. 
10. Stability
It takes time and effort to train a person to do a job and therefore keeping him stable in the job for a reasonable period is necessary to get returns on this investment. Further, it creates team spirit, smoothness, and enhances productivity. 
11. Scalar chain
The flow of information and exercise of authority has to flow in a chain from top to bottom. This does not mean a strict hierarchy, but it means the existence of a clear flow. This flow may be and should be circumvented during an emergency. 
12. Subordination of individual interest to general interest
Individuals draw their identity and livelihood from the organisation. Others also do that. Therefore, the organisational interest should supersede individual interest because the former affect the interest of many stakeholders.
13. Centralisation and decentralisation
Centralisation means concentration of authority at the top level and decentralisation means delegating it to the lower levels. While absolute centralisation or decentralisation is not feasible, the principle propagates finding the ideal balance keeping in mind the size, nature of business, experience of superiors and subordinates, dependability and ability of the subordinates, etc. This principle permits people to solve problems speedily and efficiently and enables taking initiative.


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