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free smude solved assignments for BBA Semester 1 BBA102 Q1.Define Organization Behaviour. Discuss the Scientific Management Approach and the Contingency Approach to Organization Behaviour.

Answer:  Organizational behaviour (OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behaviour within an organization, then applies that knowledge to make organizations work more effectively (Robbins, 2003).
In recent times, we notice the following changes in the organizational set up:
1. Demise of traditional hierarchical structure
2. Emergence of workforce with different expectations form organizations
3. Advancement of information technology
4. Increasing importance on empowerment and teamwork
5. Concern for work-life balance
 Contingency Approach: Traditional management emphasized the basic principle of having one best way to manage things, and that too across all organizations and in all situations. The situational effect was completely overlooked. With
the changes in external environment, even the organizations are changing, and such situational effects require careful analysis of the changes to bring about effectiveness.
Contingency theorists argue that the external environment and many aspects of the internal environment influence the structure of the organization, as well as the process of management. They further suggest that effective management will vary in different situations depending on the individual and groups, the nature of jobs, type of technology being used, the type of environment in the organization and its structure. 

Scientific Management Approach: F. W. Taylor, the father of Scientific Management, through his research and observations, devised a new theory on scientific principles. The primary concern of the scientific management approach was to increase the efficiency of the worker through job design and appropriate training of the workers. Taylor aimed at to increasing organizational efficiency. Taylor justified that organizational efficiency could be achieved through proper job design, proper selection and training of personnel and fair wage incentive system. He suggested that to perform a task, one has to adopt the right method, work according to their specialization, plan and schedule the task by using standard operating mechanisms and establishing standard times to perform the job. But, it was found that Taylor’s Scientific Theory was not accepted universally because behavioral aspects of individuals were ignored. It showed that employees were treated more as machines rather than as human beings.

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