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Q. Explain the four types of experimental designs. Pre-experimental designs Quasi-experimental designs True experimental designs Statistical designs

Answer: Pre-experimental designs: The experiment group is subjected to treatment and a post test measurement is taken. In the control group measurement is taken at the time when it was done for experimental group. These do not make use of any randomization
procedures to control the extraneous variables. Therefore, the internal validity of such designs is questionable.  

Quasi-experimental designs: this design lacks complete control of scheduling of treatment and also lacks the ability to randomize test units’ exposure to treatments. As the experimental control is lacking, the possibility of getting confounded results is very high. Therefore, the researchers should be aware of what variables are not controlled and the effects of such variables should be incorporated into the findings.

True experimental designs: In these designs, researchers can randomly assign test units and treatments to an experimental group. Here, the researcher is able to eliminate the effect of extraneous variables from both the experimental and control group. Randomization procedure allows the researcher the use of statistical techniques for analysing the experimental results.

Statistical designs: These designs allow for statistical control and analysis of external variables.


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